Saturday, August 31, 2019

Agricultural Production in Ancient Civilizations Essay

During the period of 500 C. E – 1000 C. E. ancient civilizations in North and South America and China cultivated and gradually moved from the hunting and gathering lifestyles. These civilizations drifted towards food collection and then farming. This approach, crops and attitudes toward agriculture varied with culture. With the Native Americans and the Ancient Chinese during 500 C. E – 1000 C. E. have both differences and similarities towards agricultural production. Document 1, tells of a story about how Maria Manuela de Cora (an Inca Author) passes along ancient legends. One that is called â€Å"Seeds† that says that one day the son of the sun kills a child that was made by the sun. The son of the sun got scared of the anger of his father and scattered about the world the pieces of his murdered brother. It tells that his body parts like his teeth grew corn. This would be a story about the creation of corn, why it was there and how. However, document 7 talks of an Ancient Chinese Legend. This talks more about that fact that if you took the weeds you could fertilize the farmer’s crops. With each story tells something to do with farming. How that one, thing is made or how to make their crops better. Document 5, is a diagram of a hunting scene and peasants working in a field in Ancient China. This illustration gave a reason for historians to track the development of tool- and weapon making in organization in agrarian and artisan production as well as the leisure activities of officials and the landed elites. With document 3 talks about Mesoamerican origins. Historians talk about that current archaeological evidence cannot pinpoint a single location where Indian agriculture began or determine precisely why the Indians became agriculturists. They did though have records that suggested that the cultivation and domestication of plants. With the painting and the records gave historians a better view of each hunting scene and peasants working in fields. During the period of 500 C. E – 1000 C. E. ancient civilizations in North and South America and China cultivated and gradually moved from the hunting and gathering lifestyles. These civilizations drifted towards food collection and then farming. With this approach, crops and attitudes toward agriculture varied with culture. With the Native Americans and the Ancient Chinese during 500 C. E – 1000 C. E. have both differences and similarities towards agricultural production. Showing that China was more into the facts then stories like Mesoamerica to explain the reasoning of agricultural in both of China and Native Americans.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Immanuel Kant Essay

Introduction 1What does philosophy mean? -Everyone has a philosophy -We have ideas concerning things, people, the meaning of life, death, God, what is good and bad. -We may have certain attitudes to life, certain ways of looking at things. -For example: -I am an optimist. I can always see a positive side to most unhappy situations. -I don’t believe in worrying too much. I think about today. Tomorrow can take care of itself. -Although an individual claim this to be his philosophy and rightly so. But this is not philosophy as a discipline. It is too broad, vague, superficial, impersonal and unclear. It does not adequately describe the work of a philosopher. -We need to define philosophy more specifically. 2The word â€Å"philosophy†. -The Word â€Å"Philosophy†. -Philia (love) + Sophia (wisdom) = the love of wisdom. 3Definitions of philosophy a. The study of the nature and meaning of the universe and of human life Online Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. b. Philosophy is a rational attempt to look at the world as a whole. 4What does philosophy seek to do? -Philosophy seeks to examine fundamental questions about the universe and about ourselves with the hope of coming up with consistent principles by which we can understand and live. 5Human beings have always sought answers to certain fundamental questions – What are these fundamental questions? -What makes an action write or wrong? -What is my purpose in the world? -What is truth? -What makes a good life? -Is God important in our lives? -Where does knowledge come from and how do we know that our knowledge is true. -What is the relationship between mind and body? 6Why do we need philosophy? Why do we need philosophy when we have science and technology? -We have advanced so much in science and technology -We live in cities, we have conquered the air and have ventured into space? -Communication is so developed that distance no longer matters -We have immense power over nature -We are able to produce more goods and services than ever before -So, why do we still need philosophy? 7Yet all these advances cause us to be disturbed and anxious -There is a danger that the very technology we have developed could destroy us. -For example nuclear technology. -We seem to be unable to deal with the problems of war, famine, terror, distribution of wealth, pollution, the threatened extinction of wildlife, exploitation and oppression of the weak . -Knowledge and values appear to be divorced. -This is where philosophy comes in. It helps us to examine our lives as individuals and groups. -Philosophy may not be able to provide solutions to all the world’s problems. But it helps to examine issues clearly, consider options and help us to make informed decisions. -With poor, incomplete and shallow reasoning we cannot build an enlightened society -If we are unable to distinguish between valid and invalid reasoning, then we become victims of persuasive orators, cult leaders and unscrupulous political leaders. -Philosophy helps us to see more deeply and clearly into an issue. It helps us to question traditional and outdate beliefs so that we can make informed choices -Knowledge of ethical systems help us to live ethical lives at the personal and communitarian level. -Knowledge of what constitutes beauty helps us to appreciate and respect differences in individual and cultural concepts of beauty and art. -Being able to think critically will help us to be aware of any irrational and oppressive beliefs in religion. 8The traditional divisions of philosophy. a. Logic b. Metaphysics c. Epistemology d. Value Theory LOGIC aLogic. -The systematic study of rules to distinguish or recognize good arguments from bad. -In an argument, groups will give opposing views. -How do we know which argument is good and which is not good. -Logic helps us to do so by providing rules to recognize right argument from wrong argument. -It is concerned with tests to find out which arguments are valid. -Logic runs through all the other branches of philosophy. METAPHYSICS -bMetaphysics The study of the nature of being and of the world. -It is concerned with the fundamental nature of all reality, both visible and invisible. -It asks what reality is, why it is, and how we can understand it. Ontology That part of metaphysics that studies being or existence. EPISTEMOLOGY cEpistemology The study of the sources, nature and validity of knowledge. -It deals with issues like: -What are the sources of knowledge? (Origin of knowledge) -Where does genuine knowledge come from? -How do we know? -What is the nature of knowledge? (Appearance and reality) -Is there a real world outside the mind? -If so, can we know it? -Is our knowledge valid? (Truth/Verification) -How do we distinguish truth from error? Two traditional schools of thought have sought to answer the questions above: -Rationalism -Human reason alone can discover the basic principles of the universe -Empiricism -All knowledge ultimately comes from sense experience, and therefore our knowledge is limited to what can be experienced. There is a relationship between metaphysics and epistemology. Our understanding of reality (metaphysics) depends on our understanding of what can be known (epistemology). Our theory of knowledge (epistemology) depends on how we understand ourselves in relation to the whole of reality (metaphysics). VALUE THEORY dValue Theory The branch of philosophy that studies values. -It can be subdivided into ethics, aesthetics, and social and political philosophy. iethics: is concerned with morality; right or wrong behavior. -the three areas of ethics are : descriptive, normative and metaethics. -descriptive ethics (what is ) identifies motives, desire and intentions of human conduct and acts. It describes moral actions. -normative ethics (what ought to be) proposes the principles by which people ought to act and live. These are called ethical theories. – – -Meta-ethics(analysis) on how we understand, know about, and what we mean when we talk about what is right and what is wrong. It deals with the meaning of key concepts, techniques of reasoning and analysis, and linguistic conventions It deals with matters like what do moral terms mean? What sort of mental state is involved in accepting a moral claim – a belief, an emotion? Is there any sort of moral reality or facts? Is ethical knowledge attainable? If so, how? In fact, drawing the conceptual distinction between Metaethics, Normative Ethics, and Applied Ethics is itself a â€Å"metaethical analysis. † ii. Aestheticsis concerned with the theory of art and beauty. -Many philosophical problems in aesthetics involve critical judgements.? -It deals with concepts of concepts of beauty. Is beauty subjective or objective? iii. Social and political philosophyisconcerned with value judgments concerning society, the state and the individual’s relation to these institutions -It deals with issues like -Why should individuals live in society? -What should be the social ideals of liberty, rights, justice, equality and responsibility -Why should anyone obey any government? -Why should some individuals or groups have political power over others -Who should have political power over others? -What should the scope of political power be? -What are the goals of government? Glossary 1philosophyphilia (love) + Sophia (wisdom) = the love of wisdom 2logicThe systematic study of rules to distinguish or recognize good arguments from bad 3metaphysicsThe study of the nature of being and of the world 4epistemologyThe study of the sources, nature and validity of knowledge 5value theoryThe branch of philosophy that studies values. It can be subdivided into ethics, aesthetics, and social and political philosophy. 6rationalismHuman reason alone can discover the basic principles of the universe 7empiricismAll knowledge ultimately comes from sense experience, and therefore our knowledge is limited to what can be experienced 8aesthetics Is concerned with the theory of art and beauty.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Conflicts and Communication Essay

Communication is a very key role in any type of relationship whether it be business, personal or intimate. When we enter into any type of relationship one needs to have the skills to communicate effectively and make sure that the complete message gets portrayed to the receiver. When one does not communicate effectively, the result causes interpersonal conflict. In the movie â€Å"Hitch† it involves two individuals, Will Smith and Eva Mendes, who meet and begin to enter into the beginning stages of a relationship. There is certainly an attraction, both physically and due to a common interest in things. Through hesitation and Mendes declining Smith numerous times, she finally agrees to go out with him and it turns out that they seem to be quite compatible. Through their friendship they begin to develop an intimate relationship with one another. Through this whole process Mendes has been very open and honest about things that are important to her and things that are private to her as well. It seems that Smith is doing the same thing, however it turns out that he is withholding very important information that should be shared with her. The main interpersonal conflict in this movie would be due to Smith not communicating to Mendes that he is the â€Å"Date Doctor†. Mendes has a major issue with this because she had a very good friend who was dumped and she placed the blame on Smith for this situation When she finds out what his true profession is, she become irate and storms off and refuses to speak to him or listen him. This instance caused an instant dissolution of their relationship. There was an issue, but instead of communicating it out loud or discussing it, quite the opposite happened. In our text, Sole states that, â€Å"Resentments, suspicions and other problems occur when people do not communicate or behave in ways that are consistent with the relationship the other person things has been established, and people tend to pay the most attention and to respond forcefully when the communication does not match their expectations† (Sole, 2011). Towards the end of the movie, they finally are able to communicate to each other on the same level and they work things out. In my opinion, all tension could have been resolved and the relationship could have been restored from the get-go if Smith and Mendes would have truly communicated and would have been completely honest and transparent about their lives and the things that they do and that they are involved in. Obviously, it is easier said than done. Another thing that should have been avoided would be assuming things that are really not true. â€Å"The single biggest problem with communication is the illusion that it has taken place† (George Bernard Shaw). This quote really sums up the main point and resolution to problems and issues with intrapersonal communication. Never be so blinded by the things that you are hiding from individuals you are developing relationships with and never assume that they understand things you, as the speaker, have not completely portrayed.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Writer's choice in management of the information resource Research Proposal

Writer's choice in management of the information resource - Research Proposal Example Different social media like Face book, Twitter and Linked In and television have been the best informative site since technology has ever created. As per (Doctor) â€Å"Media is an instrument on communication, like a newspaper or a radio, so social media would be a social instrument of communication†. These social media site allow managing groups and contact lists with which information can be collected and shared which is essential in business world. Social media has the ability to impart news with credibility because it presents facts in raw form. The usability and accessibility makes social media an apt information resource in management area. Managerial people get an individual space to share information and articles. Also processing and refining information is easy by means of social media. And social media have more trust worth information due to its networking ,accessibility and interactivity.As per (Daniel) â€Å"People tend to trust social media users who provide statements based on actual facts and research and not those who merely share their biased opinions† Social media is a technologically advanced means of information system where management can share information and get many leads. Social media has given more creative and interactive platform for management function and given more opportunity for information system to grow. Burgess, Ian. "Facebook as a Collaborative Knowledge Management System ." http://www.ian burgess.m Word Press, 2014. Web. 26 Jan. 2014.

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Got to Have a Goal Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Got to Have a Goal - Assignment Example Sales and compensation are integral to modern business organizations. These aspects are ascertained to impose paramount impact on the overall performance of the businesses in the contemporary world. Thus, this assignment intends to address these two major aspects. Correspondingly, the assignment is segregated into two parts. The first part reflects upon the three major techniques of goal setting in sales and provides a case study of a company, which exemplifies best practices in establishing sales goals. Similarly, the second part of the assignment considers the discussion made about three major sales incentives along with elaborating a case study on a company, exemplifying best practices in sales incentives. It is claimed that before striving any kind of business success, it is crucial for an individual to remain much aware about what he/she is striving for. The substantial knowledge regarding the aspects for which the individual is striving enable in directing efforts towards specific directions that result in attaining the best outcomes. Correspondingly, goal setting is advocated to be vital. It is essential for every individual to understand the prominence of goal setting in pursuit of certain aspects. Same rule is identified to be relevant for sales professionals in order to gain personal and organizational success. Notably, it has been argued that there are certain specific goal setting techniques in sales that required to be followed by sales professionals for gaining greater success. Failure to incorporate appropriate goal-setting techniques is observed to cause financial loss and in certain circumstances, it may also result in job loss. Most importantly, the failure may sabotage the chances of sales professionals to succeed. Thus, it is decisive for sales professionals to apply effective goal setting techniques frequently. The three basic goal-setting techniques

Critical paper for the film Lars and the real girl Essay

Critical paper for the film Lars and the real girl - Essay Example The other important thing in the film is the relationship between Lars and his family members who are also supportive of Bianca. Everyone within the family and in the workplace is supportive of Lars and Bianca to an extent of recognizing their relationship. The interesting thing in the film is that Lars’ co-worker Margo, who was admired him felt jealous of the doll. This is evident when Margo indicates that her boyfriend has broken up with her. This is interesting because Lars had ignored her and opted to stay with Bianca, instead of a real woman. The other interesting thing in the film is the doctor’s direction that everyone should support with Lars’ rehabilitation by treating Bianca as if she were a real female. The doctor discovered that Lars was undergoing an underlying problem that required the support of the family members to help overcome it. It is also exciting that Bianca was taken to the hospital after being â€Å"unresponsive.† The news moved across the town and the townspeople sent flowers to console Lars. The people’s behavior towards Bianca and Lars is strange and sounds interesting since this was a unique thing to them. Margo was among the people who had sent the flowers, though she fel t the urge of dating Lars after the misfortune of losing Bianca. The provocative aspect in the film is the way Lars idolization of Bianca at the expense of other women like Margo. This shows that the real women do not deserve the respect and support that Bianca received in the town. It would be appropriate if Lars gave the attention to real women instead of a life-size doll. The lowered the dignity of Margo and other women within the town to play second fiddle to a doll. Another provocative thing in the film is the way Lars lives in the garage, yet Gus had invited him to join them in the main house. Lars lives in solitude and do not appreciate social interactions with other family members or co-workers. This is provocative

Monday, August 26, 2019

Module 1 - Case - Health Care Financial Environment Essay

Module 1 - Case - Health Care Financial Environment - Essay Example Therefore, evaluation means conducting of assessment of perceived outcomes that are often measurable through standardized performances and regulations. It means an evaluation plan helps in achieving goals and objectives that are critical in enforcing the mission statements of a particular hospital environment (Speizman, 2009). Additionally, improvement of efficiency and effectiveness becomes of part of evaluation when CFOs examine the long-term investment decisions important for strengthening contract management. Planning, on the other hand, implies that CFOs must identify a project plan that is both feasible and operational in different environments. Accordingly, planning helps in the deconstruction of perceptions to convert them into reality when evaluating goals that need immediate implementation (Tolbert et al., 2010). It means all investment decisions are strategic because they serve certain purposes approved by CFOs in their quest to streamline the overall management (Burtrie et al., 2013). In other words, planning is a part of partnership with other management processes such as evaluation to assist in controlling of organizations cash flows and other pressing

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Islamic Banking System. Case of Malaysia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

Islamic Banking System. Case of Malaysia - Essay Example Similar to conventional banking, Islamic banks also collect the additional savings of people and then those savings are extended to those needy sectors of economy. In past, few researches have been developed to find out the relationship between the interest rate increase and funds flow from Islamic banking. This paper analyses the relationship between deposit returns of Islamic and conventional banks with an alternative econometric technique involving Units Root Test to estimate the presence of stationarity and Granger Causality test to estimate the linkage between the deposit returns of the two banking systems. The basic objective of this study is to find out the impact of the change in return deposits of one banking system on to the other. Thus, this study assists the policy makers in determining the role of Islamic banking in the overall economic, fiscal and monetary environment of the country. Introduction The purpose to conduct this study is to examine the level of substitutabil ity in the depository returns under Islamic and conventional banking system. This study comprises on the comparison of the data relating depository returns between the Islamic banking system and the conventional banking system which includes commercial, merchant banks and other financial institutions. Malaysia is considered as a case study in which both Islamic and conventional systems are aimed to be operated on parallel basis by the monetary authorities. In 1983, the first ever Islamic bank that was established in Malaysia was Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB). The Islamic banks truly started competition with their conventional counterparts in 1993 when Islamic banking scheme (IMS) was introduced by the Government of Malaysia. This scheme permits the conventional banks to introduce and participate in the products and services initially designed by Islamic banks. By the end of 2002, Total Islamic banking deposits were 10.20% of the country’s total deposits. Since Malaysian f inancial system is under the sole control of Central Bank of Malaysia, therefore the evidence that there are relationships between TDRs of Islamic and conventional banks and the monetary policy is argued under this study. In case if the there is no substitutability between the rates of depositing and financing in both Islamic and conventional banking systems, then relatively lesser restrictive effects of monetary policy can be observed in this regard. For instance, interest rates are used as a tool by the Central banks to adjust the money supply flowing in the economy. Interest rates are increased or decreased to tighten or loosen the flow of money circulating in the economy respectively. The same phenomenon cannot be established in the Islamic banking system as the depositors are not offered a fixed rate of deposit returns. There is a likelihood that if the required rate of deposit returns on Islamic banking products is not ensured to at least the amount of that conventional bankin g products, the depositors of Islamic banks would switch to other financial instruments of the conventional banks because of fact that the Islamic banking products would be of little use for the monetary purposes. Literature Review The individual saving behaviours are mainly explained by the interest rates offered in the economy as one of the key considerations. The interest rate offerings are considered as a key element because different banks offer different rates of depository returns on varying schemes of deposits. Interest rates are determined mainly because of the concept of time value of money. The longer the time that deposits takes in maturity, the higher will be the yield required by the depositors. For examples, the

Saturday, August 24, 2019

A Case Study on a South African Investment Essay

A Case Study on a South African Investment - Essay Example Such a process creates a situation for the decision-maker that he or she has never done before (Ferrell, Fraedrich & Ferrell, 2008). On the other hand, business ethics is defined as applied ethics, and is the application of the knowledge of understanding what is good and right in the context of business, transactions and other related situations (Velasquez, 2012). The beliefs, values and goals of a company reflect what the management understands about handling the business through moral perspectives. However, many companies and other businesses have been labeled negatively due to the rise of scandals involving unethical and illegal operations, which challenges the trust ratings of the public (Ferrell et al., 2008). Another is that not only do companies suffer but entities they are associated with also get negative publicity just by being tied to them. Thus is the strong need for the implementation of strong business ethics in large groups and companies. A case study involving a moral and social dilemma that needs well-thought actions but is at the mercy of the government is presented (Velasquez, 2012). In the 1970’s to the 1980’s turmoil has been brewing in South Africa regarding the apartheid system being practiced, as well as the oppression of the majority of the population (blacks) by the minority (whites). US oil companies Texaco, Inc. and Standard Oil Company of California (SoCal), joint owners of Caltex Petroleum Co. were pushed by the Interfaith Center on Corporate Responsibility, coordinated and lead by project director Tim Smith to pull out and terminate their operations in South Africa due to extreme and unfortunately legal racial discrimination among the black Africans by the whites. Such includes the complete segregation of blacks from whites, the deprivation of basic human rights such as voting rights, the right to claim a parcel of land, being underpaid, among others (ibid). Owners of Caltex insist that they were indeed committed to the improvement of their employees by increasing their wages and narrowing the gap between white and black Africans’ incomes (Nickel, 1968). If they withdraw from operating and expanding in South Africa, the results would greatly affect all employees of Caltex, both black and white South Africans. However there were still constraints that were beyond their control, and were implemented by the South African government. Among these are: the segregation of where the blacks live from the whites, the provision of strategic products to the government as per the law, and other forms of support of the apartheid law (Smith, 1971). The eventual imposition of martial law in South Africa in 1985 caused a severe recession of the economy, civil unrest, and an increase of unemployment by up to 35% (Velasquez, 2012). Western nations sanctioned the government by not allowing the renewal of loans of private companies, but this was met with retaliation by not repaying any of their foreign debt starting September of 1985 (ibid.). The possible utilitarian benefits of the Caltex 1977 expansion is not as important as the possible violations of moral rights and justice that could be involved with it. Yes, the expansion would have been beneficial to the employed citizens, and that it would put food on their tables, but it still does not give them any proper rights at all, and that no matter how much they get promoted, they were still lower-class citizens (Smith, 1971). Also, there would be the eventual unrest due to the people realizing that they are the true owners of their land, and that they have been treated unjustly for so long. There is also almost no

Friday, August 23, 2019

Job Analysis Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Job Analysis - Assignment Example their job; (5) Log records/Daily diary where employees keep daily records and job analysis can be done from the recorded information (Prien, Goodstein, Goodstein, & Gamble, 2009). The job analysis method that was used in this case was the personal observation method. The rationale for using this method is that it is useful for gaining a deeper understanding of the job activities and very useful in manual activities (Wolper, 2004) like those done by the staff registered nurse. I requested an expert to observe and record everything I did. The activities that were recorded include taking care of both inpatients and out patients, planning and coordinating clinic activities, patient evaluation and monitoring of vital signs, performing IV placements and phlebotomy, general administration of medications and developing nursing care plans and counseling patients. In conducting these activities the following equipment were identified as very important. They include: stethoscope for checking he art, lung and bowel sounds; thermometer for making temperature readings; sphygmomanometers for checking oxygen levels; blood pressure cuffs; syringes, bladder readout machines. The equipment were identified as basic and important for daily use. The working conditions at the local community hospital can be described generally as good but there are only two registered nurses making the job tedious because of the many number of patients to handle in a day. The working schedule is fixed as one has to work continuously without breaks. The management on the other hand is not very supportive as the hospital lacks equipment and personnel making the job strenuous. Some of the skills and abilities required include: knowledge of medicine and medical terminology, service skills, time management skills interpersonal skills ability to maintain confidentiality, ability to educate, and the ability to respond to emergency situations. Job description and revision The following is my job description a s a staff registered nurse at the local community hospital which is a replica of most staff registered nurses in any other hospital. The Job tasks and responsibilities include the following : (1) ensuring the efficient and coordinated clinic flow through the coordination and planning of clinic activities; communicating patient needs; making referrals; (2) Delivering direct patient care; assessing patient’s physical, psychosocial and emotional well-being; monitoring and reporting to the physician of the patients status; responding to patients telephone calls and messages and reporting to the physician any emergencies; ordering patient’s supplies; stocking and replenishing the patient’

Thursday, August 22, 2019

China in Africa Essay Example for Free

China in Africa Essay In brief the NAI Policy Dialogue questions the World Bank recommendations for large scale agriculture to solve the productivity and equity problems in African agriculture. The whole issue of property rights is intimately linked to the question about agriculture and development. The contribution by Benjaminsen and Sjaastad on aspects of property rights formalization in Africa draws on recent processes in Mali and Tanzania. A general conclusion is that the formalization of property rights in rural areas is a very complex and problematic issue. There is a high risk of the process being co-opted by officials and a wealthy elite, if necessary provisions are not made. Finally, Kjell Havnevik draws our attention to the relationship between inequality and climate change. This contribution is based on a presentation he made in Berlin in June 2007. Decoding the evolving China–Africa relations is the theme of an article written by NAI Research Director Fantu Cheru. He suggests that policies and programmes to deal with the present imbalances between China and Africa require us to revisit and redefine the NEPAD agenda. A regional approach will, in his opinion, help African countries to negotiate from a stronger and better platform. During 2008 researchers at NAI will continue to devote attention to this topic. In our interview section we present one interview with Martha Qorro, professor in English language, on the question about the language of instruction in Tanzania. She is of the opinion that the best way to teach English is not to use it as the language of instruction. She also responds to the question why the question of language of instruction has become such a sensitive political issue in Tanzania. In our second interview Jerome Verdier, chairman of the Liberia Truth and Reconciliation Commission, points to the fact that the TRC’s part of the conflict resolution is nothing new. Liberia has a history of resolving community conflicts at the round table. But in the past there were no prolonged conflicts, such as the recent 4 year period of massive human rights violation. In the research section we present the result of a conference which took place at NAI, Uppsala, in September 2007 regarding the ongoing discussions between EU and the ACP countries on Economic Partnership Agreements. The discussion at the conference highlighted the lack of connection between the poverty alleviation goal and the reality of the negotiations, despite numerous political declarations on both the EU and ACP sides. Key decisions on EPAs will soon be made by EU and ACP ministers. The Africa Europe Group of Interdisciplinary Studies, AEGIS, of which NAI is an active member, is presented through three contributions. Photo by Susanne Linderos News from the Nordic Africa Institute 3/2007 First, we bring you an interview with the AEGIS Chair, Professor Patrick Chabal of King’s College, London.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Illegal Immigration to Australia Essay Example for Free

Illegal Immigration to Australia Essay MORE than 11 illegal immigrants are arrested in Victoria every week and the numbers are expected to continue to rise. In the past financial year 612 people were arrested up from 429 the year before. Few of the illegal workers were likely to be asylum seekers who arrived by boat, with 517 arrested after overstaying their visa. A further 95 were on the run following their visa being cancelled. The figure was revealed last month as the Department of Immigration and Citizenship prepared to deport 13 illegal farm workers located in northwestern Victoria. Nine men and four women, all Malaysian nationals, had been employed on farms as pruners. They were caught in a 48-hour operation chasing illegal workers in the Mallee. The detainees were transferred to Melbournes Maribyrnong Immigration Detention Centre and nine to the Adelaide Immigration Transit Accommodation facility, pending their removal from Australia. All had overstayed their visas and were living here unlawfully, according to the department. Two other foreign nationals were given warnings, including a Malaysian national who was in Australia on a student visa but had not been studying. The employer faces fines of $13,200 and two years imprisonment per illegal worker. In Australia there are an estimated 19,540 people who have overstayed their visa an increase of 4430 from the 2009-10 financial year. In response to the growing numbers of people overstaying their visas, last month the Federal Government announced a crackdown. Immigration Minister Chris Bowen promoted the dob-in line and encouraged anyone with information about illegal workers, visa over stayers or visa fraud to call 1800 009 623 Accessing the law Migrants coming to Australia face various difficulties when accessing the law. Such dilemmas are brought about by various factors including the inability to communicate due to language restrictions and lower standards of income levels limiting access to appropriate facilities. Furthermore, the lack of knowledge of the Australian legal system and their own rights further restricts their ability to access a fair and just outcome. Due to these multiple factors an evident divide is apparent between the ability of inherent Australians and migrants in accessing the Australian legal system A major reason migrants are unable to access the law is because of the distinctive language barrier. Statistics as recorded in 2006 indicate that  74% of migrants cannot speak English well or cannot speak English at all ( This has had a major impact on their ability to access the law. As they are illiterate in the English language they are unable to interoperate any possible help. This places them at a disadvantage as it is fundamental to know English when coming across the law. As shown in the case more than 11 illegal immigrants are arrested each week, meaning that most are unable to speak English, each of these illegal immigrants need legal representation to appear in court, as the majority of these immigrants cannot speak English they will need an interpreter. This makes it more difficult on the immigrant as they are not communicating directly with the judge, thus their opinion may be ‘lost in translation’. Due to their inability to communicate, their knowledge of the Australian legal system is further restricted as simple tasks such as reading, writing and communicating in English cannot occur. Due to such issues migrants may be unaware of information and assistance programs available to them, and so they are incapable of accessing the legal syst em in such a way where their needs and wants are met. This is made evident through recent statistics that indicate 49% of migrants have come to Australia with post school qualifications, leaving the other 51% without a proper education. ( However, this statistic can be ambiguous as illegal immigrants are not accounted for. Every legal system around the world is different, most migrants who come to Australia are unaware of their rights and do not understand what the law is asking of them. As shown in the case, 517 immigrants were arrested, this further justifies their lack of knowledge as they may have been un aware of when they were scheduled to depart from Australia. Migrants who flee to Australia come with little money or no money at all. This creates a barrier when trying to access the law as money is what places the migrant at an advantage. As most these migrants did not receive a proper education their level of skills may be limited and so obtaining work is another challenge. The income levels of migrants are likely to have only just been sufficient for their daily needs, whereas those who have achieved higher levels of education are exposed to a wider range of job opportunities allowing them to obtain better access to legal representation. Exemplified  in the case 612 people were arrested, due to their low socio economic status legal aid is provided during court. Legal aid can be ineffective in some aspects as some are not as experienced and can be placed at a disadvantage when up against those who can afford barristers and QC’s. Communication can also be a barrier due to the lack of understanding and the immigrant unable to speak E nglish. Accessing the law Every person in this world has rights, rights to access the law in a fair, just an equal way. However, there are various groups in Australia who face difficulties in accessing the law, in particular migrants. There are many outstanding factors which contribute to this problem; language barriers, discrimination, low income and lack of recognition of cultural differences, each play a major role in how migrants are faced with difficulties when trying to access the law. The purpose of this report is to show awareness and educate the people on how the Australian legal system can help migrants facing issues regarding accessing the law. Effectiveness of the legal system Over time, the legal system has become aware of the unsettled issues in society regarding various groups who are put at a disadvantage in retrieving equal access to the law. One major issue which most groups face (in particular migrants) is regarding the language barrier. As many of these groups are from ethnic backgrounds, the ability to interoperate legal documents and understand their rights as a migrant is very difficult. As the government has taken this into consideration, the adult migrant English program was created. Migrants are able to have equal access in learning the English language by either sitting a class, taking tutoring lessons, doing the class online or by a distance learning program. However the end result of this program was not effective as in 1993, the funds to this program were cut, and the classes were limited. This affects many of the migrants as their only way of learning English in Australia has been terminated, therefore they are faced at a disadvantage when accessing the law. In 1992, a report called multiculturalism and the law was released it stated there was a need for interoperates, this relates to the migrants who are unable to speak English. With the representation of the interpreter the migrant will be able to express themselves and then in return not only will migrants  understand what the legal system is asking of them, they will also be able to acknowledge their rights and responsibilities. Statistics show that 20.1% of NWS residents speak another language than English at home.( Therefore, there are capable people of performing this job. Although it is virtually impossible to enforce and control discrimination, there are acts which help assist in discontinuing the use of discrimination to people , especially the indigenous Australians. A recent program called ‘close the gap’ was created to basically close the gap between the Australians and the indigenous Australians meaning both are the same and both share the same rights and responsibilities. Studies show that indigenous earn around $460 a week whereas the average non indigenous earns around $740 a week ( Mean Equivalised Gross Household Income, As shown in the above graph non indigenous earn more than an average indigenous person. As part of the close the gap program, the government has implemented housing commission (2011), where a person with a low income (indigenous) are able to live in a house and only pay a small amount of money to maintain the house and the rest is funded by the government. This is very effective as it gives those indigenous who are struggling a place to live and therefore, they do not have to seek refuge in a shelter or temporary housing. Shelters may have limited space and therefore there may not be enough room at all times. In 1995, the racial discrimination act was re written along with the introduction of the racial hatred act 1995. This act forbids any form of offensive behaviour based on racial hatred. This act states it Is illegal to offend anyone in public about their race, colour, ethnic or national origin. This is a very effective act as it forbids any type of discrimination; this will put a stop to many disputes about groups especially the indigenous Australians and migrants who believe to be discriminated against. Conclusion In conclusion, all groups in society will face a barrier or obstacle in accessing the law, mainly regarding the main factors of language barrier, lack of recognition and low income. Although these groups are disadvantaged the government has implemented many acts which assist these differences, some are effective and some are ineffective compared to others. Overall, it  is important to promote an environment where all groups in society are equal and able to achieve equal access to the law no matter who the group is. Bibliography White, Alex, A.w. Illegal Immigrant Arrests Are on the Rise across Victoria. NewsComAu. Herald Sun, 7 Sept. 2012. Web. 8 Mar. 2013. Law and Justice Foundation. EdDesk, 9 Aug. 2010. Web. 12 Mar. 2013.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

The Thomas Cook France Strategy On French Market Marketing Essay

The Thomas Cook France Strategy On French Market Marketing Essay In 2009, the international tourism industry generated more than 611 Billion Euros but it goes through a transformation cause to some externals factors. Firstly, the development of internet has particularly modified the context, permitting a disintermediation between the tours operators suppliers and the finals customers. On the other hand, Internet has also allowed the development of Pure players specialized in discount prices on the tourism industry. Because of this situation, the major tour operators groups and travel agents are developing new strategies. Their mains purposes are to satisfy the customers demand and to respond to the emergence of electronic markets system. Most of tours operators offer a wide range of holidays packages in a highly competitive market constantly in evolution. The Package Holidays (or all inclusive travels) is defined as a single package including at least travel and accommodation and sometimes other services. In France, its very popular because the customers like the value it provides, the security offered and the large choices of destination. Numerous group as TUI, Expedia, Go Travel, Club Medà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ are present in the French market but Thomas Cook is a very good model in term of strategy, positioning and growth Indeed, with 3 million annual customers in 2009 and a market share of 13%, Thomas cook France is a second major tour operator in France offering a large range of tourism and services through all over the world for all the budgets. Thanks to the acquisition of Jets tours and results in net progression, the group is now able to develop a strategy based on the innovation and on it network growth. In 2012, Thomas Cook wants to reach 20% of market share on the tour operating market and is interesting to explore the strategic position of the groups to achieve its objectives. Throughout this report, we are going to analyze the macro-environment of the group thanks to the Pestle Analysis and the five forces framework, as well as it strategic capability in order to understand it strategic fit and direction with Environment. 2 Task A The Macro- Environment To maintain profitability, the tours operators have to analyze their business environment to achieve high sales volume and to reduce the costs of the packages by allowing to the customers a great valuable experience. Nowadays, tourism is a dynamic industry, really vital for the international economy. Nevertheless, this industry is very dependent of the macro-environment mutations. Indeed, some elements can influence the stability of the market as the geopolitics conflicts, effects of terrorism and environmental issues for example. All this can have impacts on the tours operators performance as well as in their strategic direction. Its necessary for the managers to use the Pestle Analysis for understanding their industry situation. Thanks to this useful tool the tours operators will be able to consider its external environment before to make wrong choices and to put in place their strategies. 2.1 PESTLE Analysis Figure 1 Pestel Factor on the tourism industry 2.1.1 Political The political influence is certain. Since the 11 September attacks the global political situation has changed. These facts have had bad impacts on the tourism industry and on its different actors (travel agent, airline companies and tour operators). The precautions related to security, the struggle against the terrorism and the management of the crisis became majors factors which resulted to modifications and reorganization in the touristic activities. The procedures to enter on the territories are harder, controls in the airports have been reinforced and all this affect tourist perceptions. Cause to the deficit public, the French government will establish in 2012 a new Taxation policy on the internet subscription (source le Figaro). This decision can impact the purchasing power of the French people and influence their holidays destinations. Nevertheless, some events promoted the activities touristic like the Schengen area expansion or the enlargement of the European Union (Cyprus in 2004 which is a great destination for the French people, Turkey in a near future). 2.1.2 Economic All stakeholders are strongly influenced by the economic situation. Tourism is one of the most resilient industries in the world. The international tourists arrivals are estimated to have declined worldwide by 4% in 2009 to 880 millions. In the same year, international tourism generated 611 à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ billion in export earnings according to the world tourism organization. Cause to the global economic crisis and the problem of the H1N1 Flue, the short distance travel have been privileged face up to the purchasing power diminution. Indeed, in France, only 20% of the population traveled in a foreign country and 46% didnt go on holidays cause to the diminution of their budget. The decreasing of the Euro and the unemployment augmentation can represent also a threat for the French customers. Moreover, the pressure on the fuel prices by the speculation, the conflicts or by the OPEP countries can cause majors impacts in the Tour operators strategies because the oil prices is also an important factor in the package holidays industry. 2.1.3 Social Nowadays, we can see a rise in tourism by elderly and by the student. News customers expectations emerge and influence the tour operators offers. With the development of cheapest holidays (particularly in Mediterranean countries), the travel abroad became banal and now, lot of people are looking for a consumption more responsible. The attitudes concerning safety and environment play from now on an important role in the customers decisions Moreover, brand consciousness has a good impact on the people. 2.1.4 Technological With the internet development, lot of actors offer competitive price and also at the last minute. This entire permit for the customers to choose and to compare The impacts are considerable because the online reservation and sales permits to eliminate staff, intermediaries and in this way tour operators have to adopt their strategies in order to dont lose their customers. Nevertheless, Internet is also a low barrier for potential entrants. Internet has also permitted the emergence of platform like Trip Advisor. Just in few seconds the customers have the power to destroy the reputation of a company. 2.1.5 Environment The sustainable tourism represents a good opportunity in the Tourism industry. We can see consumption more responsible and the augmentation of ethical packages holidays. For example, KUONI group realized a partnership with some organizations or associations to promote tourism more responsible. However, Tourism can contribute to the degradation of the environment (CO2 emission cause to the aviation contribution, green house effects, pressure on the local resources and water for some countries). Natural disasters like the tsunami, Caribbean hurricane, Iceland disruptive volcano have major negatives effects. At long term, these events can cause many problems on destinations. 2.1.6 Legal In France, the employment law concerning the working time (35 hour per week, 5 weeks of holidays) has permitted to the French people to travel more but on shorts distances which favored the development of short stays(Marrakech, Romaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦). 2.2 Porters 5 Forces 2.2.1 Threat of new entrants is low High barriers to entry due to a high concentration Global players and strategic alliances: Merger and acquisition reinforce the positioning of big groups and let little chance to new distributors (maybe niche marketà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦). They propose competitive prices and lot of destinations thanks to economies of scales and integration strategies. Brand recognition: play an important role as barrier to new entrants. In the French market, more than 35% of market share is controlled by Thomas Cook and TUI. 2.2.2 Threat of substitutes is high Emergence of the information and communication technologies Internet product development  [1]  : Has permitted the online agency emergence which necessitate less investments so a repercussion on the final price The role of the tours operating is questioned. Now its possible to plan his trips without going through the traditional network. 2.2.3 The power of buyers High due to large choices of substitutes The buyer power is high: Easier access to substitutes / Customers can compare the offers and impose their conditions to have a better value for money Customer reactions: Have the possibility to give her opinion on the company performances and services after their trips = Necessity for the tours operators to managing the customer relation and to attract and keep it. 2.2.4 The power of suppliers High due to a disintermediation phenomenon E-Commerce development  [2]  : Suppliers (airline companies, hostelsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦) can sale directly to the final customer in order to absorb  [3]  the intermediarys margin Difficulties for companies having a low market share to have power on supplies 2.2.5 Competitive Rivalry- High due to pressure on the margins and differentiation opportunities The French market of tour operating is fragmented and enough saturated. High fixed cost largely favors the top leaders and permits to realize concentration and integration strategies in order to pressure on the margins The big group came from internet are stronger and reinforce their position with acquisition and merger to propose competitive prices However, there are still opportunities for companies because: Low differentiation between the tours operators: Excepted Club Med, Voyageurs du Monde or Marmara for example, the tours operators compete on a same segment(midrange and up market) without a really distinct identity Even if, Thomas Cook and TUI have an important financial capabilities, the financial performances of the sector are average 2.3 Critical success factor Now, we can identify the critical success factors to conclude the macro-environment analysis. This latter are important key points to consider in order gaining a competitive advantage: The price is highly important even for the up market segment because the tourism industry know a strong pressure on the margins Offer a service of quality to the customer in order to be differentiate of the competition and to attract and keep the customer Control the costs in order to be competitive on the market Consider the ICT (information and communications technologies) to extend the customer base and to face up at the evolution of the market Partnerships and network 2.4 Opportunities and Threats OPPORTUNITIES THREATS Sales augmentation thanks to internet Online Agencies growth and development Employment law favorable for travels Disintermediation between the tours operators suppliers and the finals customers Opportunities in niche and up market segment Air traffic controls cause to terrorism Ecotourism development Easier access to substitutes Brand consciousness Increase of the oil barrel price Customers are looking for a service personalized based on the quality Purchasing power diminution / Global recession Low differentiation between the tours operators Natural disasters, green house effects Table 1: Opportunities and Threats 3 Task B The external factors play a major role on the tourism industry and its actors. Now that the macro-environment analysis has been realized, the second parts will deal with the strategic capabilities of Thomas Cook France. 3.1 Thomas Cook France Since 2000 the group is present on the French market and possesses a valuable brand image thanks to its first distribution network in France (660 agencies), a strong brand portfolio (Jet Tours, Club Jumboà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦) and values which place customers at the center of its preoccupations. In this second part of the assignment, competitive advantage, resources and competencies will be analyze in order to understand how the group can surmount the threats and exploit the opportunities of the market. 3.2 Value Chain 3.2.1 Primary activities The main activities generating added values for Thomas Cook is firstly the supply of packages followed by the composition of the offer and its arrangements according to their customers and orientation. Then, come an important key concerning the service based on sales experience and the manner to advice. To conclude, the after sales service in order to insure the customer satisfaction and his fidelization. 3.2.2 Support Activities Support activities provide support and added value to the primary functions improving the effectiveness and efficiency of the latter. If tour operator want be competitive in the market, he has to acquire informatics systems and infrastructure. Moreover, as Thomas Cook is an intermediary between suppliers and the customer, the management of the human resources is highly important to insure a support in the primary activities. In this context, the network and partnerships are essentials in order to offer competitive touristic products and services and Thomas cook is well positioned on this point with more than 150 partnerships (Club Med, Traveltainmentà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦) This value chain provides an overview of the functioning of a tour operator like Thomas Cook and will help the managers to understand which activities provide more value to be competitive. Infrastructure and informatics systems Human resources: formation, experience, destination Knowledge Development of partnerships and networks contacts SUPPLIES COMPOSITION OF THE PACKAGES HOLIDAYS MARKETING AND SALES SERVICE Figure 3 Thomas Cook France Value Chain 3.3 Resources and competences 3.3.1 Physical resources and capabilities Even if Thomas Cook is a service provider, the tangibles goods that it possesses take on a strategic importance. The most important factor for the group is the utilization of its most important physical resource: its 660 agencies on all the French territory. These agencies permit to develop a good quality in term of sales and advices but also permit to identify in live the demand evolution. Thomas Cook is the first tour operator which covers all the territory thanks to its distribution network. TUI Travel, the leader on the French market arrive in second position with almost 400 agencies. (à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦..). The most important factor for tour operator capabilities is the utilization of the distribution framework. More than 60 % of the sales are carried out by the agencies network. Moreover, Thomas cook possess a quite sophisticated IT infrastructure thanks to its partnership with TravelTainment. Thanks to a performing tool concerning the online reservation, the group proposes a high technological solution and became the first group in France to put in place such a partnership. 3.3.2 Human Resources and competencies Thanks to 1700 employees at the attention of the customers, Thomas Cook France attach an importance to human resources management The human resources policy of the group, emphases training and adaptation of teams to increase the professionalization and promote an operational decentralization. All the employees are positively aware of all the destinations. Nevertheless, the low level of wage can be a threat for the group in term of competitiveness. Indeed, in 2010, 40% of the employees have participated at a strike to demand augmentation face to positive results. One indicator for the human resources competency of Thomas Cook can be the Chairman knowledge,  skills, experience  and  behavior  used to improve performance of the group. Since 2006, the chairman of Thomas Cook, Denis Wathier, expert in E-commerce fulfils totally the group expectations in accordance with the market opportunities and threats (E-commerce evolutionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦). He has refocused the strategy, developed the franchise network and internet sales and has permitted to recover profitability. He has a great valuable experience in tourism industry (see Table 3) and the frequency of chairman substitutions have been stop (source). Since 2006 THOMAS COOK CHAIRMAN 2004 2006 MAEVA Group strategy Director 2000 -2004 VOYAGES-SNCF.COM General Director 1996 -2000 PIERRE VACANCES TOURISME Marketing and Communication  Director 1995 -1996 CLUB MÉDITERRANÉE Marketing Director France   1990 -1995 UCPA Marketing and sales Manager Figure 4 Denis Waltier Experience, Thomas Cook France Chairman 3.4 Financial resources and competencies Since 2007, Thomas Cook have positive results (Table4) because in 2006 the net income was 6  300 000 à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬. Denis Waltier hopes for 2010 an operational profitability of 5 %. This profitability will be the result of a hard work concerning the staff control cost and package holidays costs. THOMAS COOK France 2008 2007 Evolution Net income 71  900 000 4.400.000 + 1534,09 % Gross operating profit -900.000 -1.700.000 + 47,06 % Table 2 Financial results Ratio THOMAS COOK France 2008 2007 Evolution Cash flow Staff costs 1.900.000 400  000 4.200.000 1.300.000 -54,76 % -69,23% Table 3 Financial Ratio Staff cost is a key performance in term of cost management. The difference is significant for 2007-2008. This entire permit to be more competitive on the market because there is a huge pressure on the margins. 3.5 Intangible resources and capabilities The intangible resource of Thomas Cook is its brand recognition and experience. The group has a huge brand image in France but also all around the world. In 2001, after only one year of experience in the French Market, Thomas Cook has had 31% of notoriety and overtook competitors based on the market since more than 10 years. In this segment, the group has a significant potential in term of competitive advantage. Moreover, the leadership position of Thomas Cook on the French market is explained by the values which animate its business: the quality of services and the customer satisfaction. 3.6 Overview about Threshold vs. Unique resources /Competencies RESOURCES COMPETENCIES Threshold competencies Financial Human Financial Human Physical Intangible Capabilities for competitive Advantage Intangible Physical Figure 4 Threshold vs. Unique Resources / Competencies The principal competitive advantage of Thomas Cook France is its reputation and brand name which are two elements which permit them to be the second leadership on the French market. With more than 150 partnerships, 4 billions of customers and a strong presence in the international market, the brand Thomas Cook has a good reputation and notoriety. 3.7. Evaluation of a sustainable competitive advantage The sustainable competitive advantage of Thomas Cook is its distribution network. With a multi-canal distribution strategy, the group is in advance on its competitors. Indeed, it has the best distribution capabilities in term of agencies and covers all the French territory. All this permit to gain market share and to have a great positioning in term of distribution. The group hopes to overtake TUI Travel in 2 years thanks to this advantage. 3.8 Summary of Strengths and weaknesses STRENGHTS WEAKNESSES Excelent brand image and notoriety Human resources: Decrease of the wages Competitive distribution network : 660 agencies High Chairman substitutions (4 in five years) Human competencies Financial resources: Negative gross operating profit Positioned on all the segments Low cost with Club Jumbo Mid-range with Up market with Jet Tours The group is late on the internet distribution network Intangible resources: Lack of identification on other Thomas Cook brands Strong partnership and relation with suppliers Net Income growth Table 4 Strengths and weaknesses 4. Task C 4.1 Strategic Direction Thomas Cook France follows a strategy based on its growth network and on innovation. The principal objective for Thomas Cook France is to control the costs in order to be competitive. Thomas Cook is conscious of the threats and opportunities on the market. Nowadays, the group wants to strengthen its positioning on the French market and developed new segments like its niche concept voyage trà ¨s privà ©e and Au coeur du monde. Thanks to the Ansoff matrix, we can analyse the strategic direction : Two main options Market penetration: Thomas cook has to gain market share if the group wants to achieve its objectives for 2012: 20% of market share in 2012. The group proposes competitive products and services. It has a strong power vis-à  -vis suppliers and thanks to its strong distribution network, he has in advance on these competitors. Now, the group has to increase their economies of scale It has to have a clear positioning on the market Horizontal integration: 4.2. Strategic Fit Opportunity /Threats SUITABLE Strategy  ? Comments Eco tourism product development X For the moment Thomas Cook doesnt take account of this opportunity in its strategy. It has strong partnership with non gouvernemental organizations like planà ¨te urgence but doesnt propose ethical packages holidays. Brand consciousness Æ’Â ¼ Thomas Cook France have a strong brand image and its communication strategy is based on its knowledge and experience Service personalized for the customers Æ’Â ¼ The customer is in the center of its preoccupations. Their only objective is to give at the customer an unforgettable experience. For example Thomas Cook France is the only company who propose an assistance in French in their village holidays Purchasing power diminution Æ’Â ¼ Thanks to its new low-cost product Le Club Jumbo, the group can face up to the global recession and propose substitution product and services to maintain their sales volume Internet development X The group is late on this segment. The sales represent only 11% of the sales. The Chairman has decided to invest in this network and wait for the next years Low differentiation between the tours operators X Even if the group is positioned on all the range, it has a lack of differentiation due to the numbers of its offers and its positioning strategy is not enough clear Online Agencies growth and development Æ’Â ¼ Appropriate strategy thanks to the development of an online platform Vacances trà ¨s privà © Green house effects/ Global Warming Æ’Â ¼ The sustainable development is a priority in the Thomas Cook strategy. Since 2007, the group put in place a strategy to reinforce their image : 1 package holiday bought = 1 tree planted in Indonesia Opportunities in niche market Æ’Â ¼ The group propose a new offer positioned on a niche segment: luxury package holidays at decreasing price scale Table 5 Strategic Fit of Thomas Cook Critical succes factors Match? Comments The price Æ’Â ¼ -Thomas Cook propose competitive prices thanks to its network and partnerships -Strong relations with the suppliers which permit economies of scale and to be competitive -Pricing policy Servive of quality Æ’Â ¼ Quality of the service is at the center of the preoccupations Before the travel: Assistance 24/24 and 7/7 by phone or internet During the travel : special assistance services After the travel: Customer satisfaction study Consider the ICT Æ’Â ¼ Partnerships Æ’Â ¼ 150 partnerships Control of the costs . Table 6 Thomas Cook France match with critical success factors References List Books Gerry Johnson, Kevan Scholes and Richard Whittington, 8th edition, Exploring Corporate Strategy, Text and cases, 2010 Gilian Dale, BTEC National, Travel and tourism, 2007 John Beech, Simon Chadwick, The business of tourism management, 2006 A.K Bahtia, The business of tourism: Concept and strategies, 2007 Viviane Tauran-Jamelin, Marketing du tourisme  : 1à ¨re et 2à ¨me annà ©e, 2002, France Internet Journal du net, 2006, Qui sont les championsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦du voyage  ? Available at: Tnooz, 2010, Build your own package holiday on Thomas cook and you actually go with Expedia Available at: Journal du net, 2010, France : Le marchà © du tourisme en ligne Available at: Strategos, Pierre Amalou,2009, Denis Wathier, prà ©sident du directoire de Thomas Cook France Available at: Synolia, 2010, THOMAS COOK VOYAGES DOPE SES PARTS DE MARCHÉ AVEC SUGARCRM Available at  : BFM Radio, 2010, Interview de Denis Wathier : On ne peut pas se contenter de faire uniquement du voyage gà ©nà ©raliste Available at: Les Echos, 2009, La consolidation du secteur est en cours Available at: distribution/dossier/300377344-la-consolidation-du-secteur-est-en-cours.htm Daily, 2008, AVEC JET TOURS, THOMAS COOK ATTEINT LA TAILLE CRITIQUE EN FRANCE (WATHIER) Available at: Daily, 2008, THOMAS COOK FRANCE PASSE À LOFFENSIVE ET ÉTEND SON RÉSEAU DAGENCES Available at: Corporama watching the business, 2010, Economie : Un partenariat de 3 ans pour Transavia et Thomas Cook Available at: Journal du net, 2008, Thomas Cook rachà ¨te Jet Tours au Club Med Available at  :, 2006, Thomas Cook France de retour à   là ©quilibre Available at: Wikionews, 2010, Thomas Cook ouvre 3 nouveaux Club Jumbo Available at: Rà ©seau de veille en tourisme, 2008, Regard sur les grands changements du  «tour-operating » mondial Available at: Là ©cho, 2010, Thomas Cook France revendique 5 % de rentabilità © en 2009 Available at:,19959 Là ©cho, 2010, Thomas Cook assure en cas de force majeure Available at:,20842, 2008, Thomas Cook France, Financial infomations Available at:, 2009, Thomas Cook France: Denis Wathier succeed à   Olivier de Nicola, Restructuration de Thomas Cook France Available at: Strategos, 2010, Denis Wathier, prà ©sident du Directoire Thomas Cook France Available at: Sud Aà ©rien, 2004, Quand les  «Ã‚  low cost  Ã‚ » grignotent les marchà ©s du charter Available at: Stratà ©, 2004, Adieu Havas voyages, bonjour Thomas Cook Available at: Tour Hebdo, 2010, Thomas Cook champion de la rentabilità © du secteur en 2010 Available at: Strategos, 2010, Denis Wathier, Thomas Cook Available at: World Tourism Organisation, 2010, Comitted to tourism, travel and millennium development goals Available at: 2008, THOMAS COOK GROUP MAKES ACQUISITIONS IN FRANCE AND CANADA

Exploring Emotion Essay -- Psychobiology of Emotions

Emotions have developed along with the sophistication of the brain as an organ throughout the process of evolution. Instinctive feelings necessary for survival, such as thirst, hunger, and sex drive, are the oldest and most primitive â€Å"emotions†, and they are present in many non-human creatures. The monitoring systems in an animal’s body send signals to the brain when the body is in need of food or water, and this triggers the firing of neurons that in turn advise the creature to search for these necessities. Because these instinctual feelings are reflex related, they originate in the brain stem of primitive creatures (do Amaral). As animals progressed and their brains advanced from just a brain stem into the cerebellum and eventually the cerebral hemispheres, they began to experience more complex, affective emotions including love, friendship, and maternal care (Bekoff 861). Humans possess the most complex brains, and therefore it is believed that humans experience the widest range of emotions. Experimental evidence has shown that human emotions result largely from interactions between several different parts of the brain, known collectively as the limbic system (Thompson 29). The more psychological view of emotions claims an emotion is expressed in reaction to one’s individual interpretation of the surrounding environment. This explanation provides a slightly higher-level view of the issue at hand. However, how and why humans feel something during an emotional experience is still unknown and heavily debated. I believe that these feelings arise as part of the epiphenomenon of consciousness that is unique to living beings, and therefore the complete human emotional experience cannot be mechanically replicated.... ...ius of human life. Works Cited Anatomy of the Brain. American Health Assistance Foundation. 5 Dec. 2002 . Bekoff, Marc. â€Å"Animal Emotions: Exploring Passionate Natures.† Bioscience. Oct. 2000: 861-882. Boeree, Dr. C. George. Emotion. 2002 . do Amaral, Julio Rocha and Jorge Martins de Oliviera. Limbic System: The Center of Emotions. . Picard, Rosalind W. â€Å"Does HAL Cry Digital Tears? Emotions and Computers.† HAL’s Legacy: 2001’s Computer as Dream and Reality. Ed. David G. Stork. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996. Rolls, Edmund T. The Brain and Emotion. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Thompson, Jack George. The Psychobiology of Emotions. New York: Plenum Press, 1988.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Movie Icons Essay -- Female Body, Monroe, Clifford

In the early 20th century, women idolized movie icons such as Marilyn Monroe and Camille Clifford. Around 1900s, Camille Clifford started the trend where the standards of beauty were set around 140 pounds, at 5’4† feet tall. Back then, the ideal female body is by having a smaller mid-section (e.g. hourglass ideal/corsets). Marilyn Monroe’s tiny waist and seemingly large bust line triggered female fans to start to engage more on physical activities. The outburst on slender-looking portrayal of body-image began in early 1960s (e.g. Fashion icon, Twiggy). Most western societies experience enormous pressures on individuals to conform and achieve the thin-ideal. This influence by mass-media affects just about anyone including males and females, adults, adolescents, and children. The exposure to mass media’s depiction of the thin-ideal body may be linked to body image disturbance in women. Researchers Grabe, Hyde, and Ward (2008) conducted a meta-analysis which examined experimental and correlational studies focusing on media exposure’s relationship with women’s body dissatisfaction, eating behavior, and internalization of the thin ideal. Their findings from these analyses suggest that media exposure is strongly correlated with women’s body dissatisfaction. They assert that exposure to media impacts women’s body image negatively regardless of other variables (e.g. assessment technique, individual variability, age, etc.) Many scholars find it indeterminate when the assumption is made that body image has worsened (and continues to worsen) for both genders over time. The essence of investigating whether the trend in body image has changed over recent decades is to get a better grasp regarding the correlation between body satisfaction a... ... Researchers have consistently found a strong correlation between exposure to the media’s portrayal of the thin-ideal body and increased body dissatisfaction. Results of several studies indicate that women’s body satisfaction has increased over time, on average. It has been hypothesized that this trend may be due to a larger public awareness of exaggerated portrayal of the thin-ideal by the media. Because the average female’s body-mass index has also increased over time, it has additionally been suggested that there may g acceptance of larger weight, less exaggerated body ideals, termed â€Å"real bodies.† While female body satisfaction has increased on average over time, male body satisfaction has remained largely the same. Researchers have suggested that body-satisfaction differences between males and females may be originate from differences in body comparison.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Analysis of Billings Article, Are Women in Management Victims of the P

Introduction This research paper will discuss a paper published in volume 18 of Gender, Work and Organization (ISSN 0968-6673), in the Human Resource Management and Employment Studies field, titled â€Å"Are Women in Management Victims of the Phantom of the Male Norm?† (Billing 2011). Yvonne Due Billing is an Associate Professor working at the Department of Sociology in the University of Copenhagen. She has more than 60 published research contributions to book/anthology/report, working papers and contribution to conferences (University of Copenhagen 2011). I will first discuss the general approach and rationale. This includes the research question; the research topic, its assumptions and hypothesis; and the research philosophy. Although this research paper could be evaluated in a number of ways and from different angles, I will focus upon the data collection methods. Starting with the literature review (secondary data collection), primary citations / sources, up to the usage of theoretical concepts inherited from the literature. Thereafter the primary data collection method will be assessed. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations will be offered. General approach and rationale Women in managerial roles has been a topic of debate for many decades. The advancement of women into position of power and influence in organisations has seen a steady rise, contributing to the equality of opportunity, in the last years (ILO 2004). However, the management gender commonplace is still considered to be a barrier. Indeed, in a worldwide overview of women in management, Berthoin and Izraeli (2002), reckon that the most important obstacle faced by female managers in industrialized nations is the stereotype that links management ... .../abs_lightningwintro.pdf> [accesed on 3/6/2011] Heilman, M., Wallen, A.S., Fuchs, D., and Tamkins, M. (2004) Penalties for success: reactions to women who succeed at male gender-typed tasks, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 89, No. 3, pp. 416-427. ILO (2004) Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Women in Management, Update, 2004, International Labour Organization, Geneva. Locke, K. (2001) Grounded Theory in Management Research. London: SAGE Publications Ltd University of Copenhagen. (2011). Department of Sociology - Profiles. [online] Available at: [Accessed on 6/6/2011] West, C. and Zimmerman, D. (1987) Doing gender, Gender & Society, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 125–51. Wiley-Black (2011) [TITLE] Gender, Work & Organization. [online] com/journal.asp?ref=0968-6673> [Accessed on 14/06/2011]. Analysis of Billing's Article, Are Women in Management Victims of the P Introduction This research paper will discuss a paper published in volume 18 of Gender, Work and Organization (ISSN 0968-6673), in the Human Resource Management and Employment Studies field, titled â€Å"Are Women in Management Victims of the Phantom of the Male Norm?† (Billing 2011). Yvonne Due Billing is an Associate Professor working at the Department of Sociology in the University of Copenhagen. She has more than 60 published research contributions to book/anthology/report, working papers and contribution to conferences (University of Copenhagen 2011). I will first discuss the general approach and rationale. This includes the research question; the research topic, its assumptions and hypothesis; and the research philosophy. Although this research paper could be evaluated in a number of ways and from different angles, I will focus upon the data collection methods. Starting with the literature review (secondary data collection), primary citations / sources, up to the usage of theoretical concepts inherited from the literature. Thereafter the primary data collection method will be assessed. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations will be offered. General approach and rationale Women in managerial roles has been a topic of debate for many decades. The advancement of women into position of power and influence in organisations has seen a steady rise, contributing to the equality of opportunity, in the last years (ILO 2004). However, the management gender commonplace is still considered to be a barrier. Indeed, in a worldwide overview of women in management, Berthoin and Izraeli (2002), reckon that the most important obstacle faced by female managers in industrialized nations is the stereotype that links management ... .../abs_lightningwintro.pdf> [accesed on 3/6/2011] Heilman, M., Wallen, A.S., Fuchs, D., and Tamkins, M. (2004) Penalties for success: reactions to women who succeed at male gender-typed tasks, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 89, No. 3, pp. 416-427. ILO (2004) Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Women in Management, Update, 2004, International Labour Organization, Geneva. Locke, K. (2001) Grounded Theory in Management Research. London: SAGE Publications Ltd University of Copenhagen. (2011). Department of Sociology - Profiles. [online] Available at: [Accessed on 6/6/2011] West, C. and Zimmerman, D. (1987) Doing gender, Gender & Society, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 125–51. Wiley-Black (2011) [TITLE] Gender, Work & Organization. [online] com/journal.asp?ref=0968-6673> [Accessed on 14/06/2011].

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Explain different methods of feedback Essay

Learning is an active process. To learn, we need to plan what we’re going to do; attempt to do it and then receive feedback on our work. We then use this feedback to improve the work we have just done; or, more often in education, to ensure that the next work we do embraces what we have learned. Feedback also affects how we feel about our work, and inevitably also about ourselves; feedback thus also affects student motivation. Feedback can be delivered in a number of styles. Methods which can deliver a higher payoff for both trainers and students are: Self assessment, Students comparing work, Individual learning development plans, Peer-marking with feedback, Presentations by students, Verbal feedback to individuals, Feedback Sandwich and Verbal feedback to whole class. Carl Rogers places self assessment at the start and heart of the learning process. And the learning from experience cycle devised by Kolb places heavy emphasis on self assessment. It is most important that we reflect in a way that enables us to learn. This involves not blaming the students or our self for anything that went wrong but instead trying to identify why things worked or didn’t work. Try to learn the general principles of what works, and then you can use these principles to work out how to teach better in the future. It can be made by learners as well where they can make judgement about their own work. An easy method of feedback is just by allowing the learners to compare their work. This will allow them to correct their mistakes and improve their work. And Peer Assessment is where a pupil’s work is judged by fellow pupils. Individual learning plans form a ‘route map’ of how a learner will get from their starting point on a learning journey to the desired end point. They may be for one course and include the acquisition of qualifications and skills, or may link several courses that give progression to different  levels (from level 1 to 3, or from level 2 to Higher Education). They should be individual for each learner to reflect aspirations, aptitude and needs. Peer Assessment is where a pupil’s work is judged by fellow pupils. Self Assessment involves pupils making judgements about their own work. These strategies involve more than using marking keys, but give opportunities for exploration of the fundamentals of the assessment process, including various types of evaluation. One of the most popular methods is Sandwich Feedback. The sandwich feedback technique is a popular three-step procedure to help tutors who are ill at ease with providing corrective feedback. The sandwich feedback method consists of praise followed by corrective feedback followed by more praise. In other words, the sandwich feedback method involves discussing corrective feedback that is â€Å"sandwiched† between two layers of praise. The purported benefits of this technique are twofold: (1) it â€Å"softens† the impact of the criticism or corrective feedback on an employee/learner, and, (2) given that a manager/tutors is probably more comfortable with praising the employee/learner, the manager/tutor finds it easier to discuss problems with the learner/employee’s behavior if this discussion begins and ends with praising the employee/learner. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Dr R. Paton and Dr S. Fearnley, Asssesing Students’ work (Undated) (Accessed on 1/12/2011) Geoff Petty , Self Assessment: Evaluating your teaching (2004), (Accessed on 1/12/2011) EXCELLENCE GATEWAY, LEARNING AND SKILLS IMPROVEMENT SERVICE (LSIS) 2011 HTTP://WWW.EXCELLENCEGATEWAY.ORG.UK/PAGE.ASPX?O=108288(ACCESSED ON 1/12/2011) THE HIGHLAND COUNCIL,( 20/08/2010), HTTP://WWW.HIGHLANDSCHOOLS-VIRTUALIB.ORG.UK/LTT/FLEXIBLE/PEER.HTM(ACCESSED ON 1/12/2011) NAGESH BELLUDI, THE SANDWICH FEEDBACK TECHNIQUE (FEBRUARY 20, 2008) HTTP://WWW.RIGHTATTITUDES.COM/2008/02/20/SANDWICH-FEEDBACK-TECHNIQUE/(ACCESSED ON 1/12/2011)

Friday, August 16, 2019

Hyphenated Americans and the Hardships of the American Indians Essay

Many Americans recognize themselves with a hyphenated designation. They call themselves Asian-Americans, Arab-Americans, Jewish-American, Cuban-Americans, native-Americans and many other. They considered themselves immigrants -people who moved to the United States to seek legal permanent residency and stable sources pf livelihood. Indeed, it is said that the United States has always been a nation of refugees and immigrants, with the exception of the natives living here before the Spanish, French, Viking, Dutch and English explorers arrived in the 16th and 17th centuries. Native Americans (Indian American) who lived on the North America peninsula for at least 16,000 years had a very diverse collision on American history and racial relations. It is noticeable that during the independent periods, a long series of conflicts between Indian tribes erupted for almost 2000 years. These include wars, massacres, imposition of treaties and forced displacement done by the immigrants in their native soil. History books documented the first racial discrimination: Hernando De Soto burned a number of Indian villages in 1540, with the consent of the Spanish Crown. In early 1700’s, the English massacred nearly 800 Choctaws. Afterwhich, the idea of Indian exclusion became popular. Choctaw elders described the incident in 1849: â€Å"We have our homes torn down and destroyed, our fences demoralized, cattle was slaughtered into our fields and we ourselves have been plagued, chained, confined and personally abused, until by such management of our some best people have died,† (William, 1988). In this view, some ideological expansionist justification included stereotyped views of all Native Americans as â€Å"merciless Indian savages,† despite triumphant efforts of American radicals to eradicate discrimination. The most popular attempt happened with the so called California Gold Rush, when thousands of Native Americans died in the gold mines of California and Arizona. Under this rule, Indians were subjected to de facto slavery. Thus, in 1850, the state of California entered the Union as a free state (including the issue of slavery); slavery was formally practiced in 1863 when the California Legislature ratified special laws on slavery. Former President George Washington believed that Native Americans were equals of the ‘modern’ American but recognize the fact that their societies were less technologically advanced. This led to the formulation of a set of policies designed to modernize these societies. These included: a) giving punishment for those who violated Native American rights, b) presidential authority to give promote Indian development, c) promotion of business, d) improvement of Native American Society, e) objective impartiality toward Native Americans, and f) regulated buying of Native American lands. In this sense, Native Americans battle for their rights and giving them the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted US citizenship to all Native Americans, although prior to the passage of the law, almost two thirds of them are already a US citizen. The act partly stated: Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That all no citizen Native Americans born within the territorial limits of the United States be, and they are hereby, declared to be citizens of the United States: Provided, That the granting of such citizenship shall not in any manner impair or otherwise affect the right of any Native American to tribal or other property. † Indian Citizen Act of 1924 Over time, as the immigration intensified, American Indians were gradually mixed into the prevailing society resulting to erosion of monolithic solidarity of ethnic cultures. But less evident was the immovable preservation of the unique characteristics of the dominantly flooded ethnicities. A civilizing pluralism steadily saturated the homogeneous principles that â€Å"natives† insisted were very important to the American distinctiveness. As ethnics detached, hyphenated societies reproduced. Thus, complexity in historical origins is evident in their ethnic closed society. For now, what is clear is that the Americans are still in making its way to accept this reality. In this sense, the remarkable ability of the Americans to fuse diversity into harmony is said to be an ever-changing mosaic of their culture.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Learning from Mistakes

I don’t remember anyone ever telling me how important school was. Maybe they did and I just chose to ignore it. Instead, I focused all of my energy on my friends, and â€Å"extra-curricular activities† that had nothing to do with academics. I remember thinking I already knew all there was to know about the real world. But, as a teenager, I guess you don’t really know anything. So, I continued to have fun with my friends without thinking of what the future had in store for me. Now here I am at the age of thirty-three and I realize how much easier my life would have been if I listened to the wise words being told to me by my mom, dad, and mostly from my grandmother. High school should be a time to spread teenage wings, growing up from children into young adulthood. To start preparing for the dreaded â€Å"C† word, College. When most kids were shuffling themselves from class to class, taking notes, flipping through pages of boring text books, I was nowhere to be found. Instead I was hanging out in the parking lot. My activities included swapping gossip from other delinquents. Instead of learning the periodic table of elements, I learned the basic chemistry of illicit drug use. When others were learning the miracles of internal combustion, I learned how to scope out unlocked parked cars that allowed me access to â€Å"OPP† Other People’s Property. I earned my unofficial degree in General Education by majoring in Street Smarts. However, one can’t write that on a resume. During this time, my family raised their efforts in trying to encourage me to go back to school. My parents were informed by the truancy department of my 30 day personal leave of school and my mom was being threatened to go to jail for my actions. My mother had had enough and dragged my know-it-all behind back into school following into each room and sitting with me to ensure I actually attended class. She was my faithful but unwilling lunch partner. As upset as I was that she followed me around like an angry mother bear, my friends enjoyed their free lunch. Midway through my sophomore year in high school I dropped out and focused my time on losing myself in the fog of drugs. Days melted into weeks, which then melted into months. One day I woke up and realized I was nineteen years old. It wasn’t too long after that I found out I was pregnant with my oldest daughter Christal. All of a sudden education became important to me. I enrolled into Serremonte Del Rey Adult education. Going back to school with an infant child was harder then I could imagine. Diapers and bottles became routine and somewhere in the middle of raising a baby I had to find time to do my homework. It was hard but I was able to graduate with my G. E. D. A few years later my second daughter, Jennel, soon came along. Somewhere between the birth of my first and second child, I realized I had to get a job. I was twenty-three at the time. My first job was at a jewelry kiosk called â€Å"Impressions By The Inch. † Working as a single mom took up most of my time and energy. If I wasn’t at work, I was home taking care of kids. The hangouts in the High School parking lot were things of the past. As those fun days disappeared I realized that I had wasted my time having fun and not preparing for me or my daughters future. After working in the jewelry store, I started working as a manager in the retail store called Aeropostale for three years. It was exhausting, raising two daughters and accommodating a hectic schedule was near impossible. I found myself at times sleeping overnight in the back room because it was easier than going home in between work shifts. Soon I found a job working for the Marriott Hotel chain where I’ve been for five years. Working for the Marriott was a blessing in disguise as far as my path back to education. Had it not been for the constant breakdown of office equipment and computer failures, I would not have realized how much I enjoy the inner workings of computers. Recently, my hours at work were reduced giving me an opportunity to go back to school. One of the best decisions I’ve ever made was to go back to school to get my degree. Going back to school added other difficulties, but I am glad to accept them because I know I am working towards a goal that will one day make my future better and brighter. Looking back, I have to ask myself, â€Å"Do I regret the choices that I made in my adolescent days? † I can definitely say that I don’t regret a thing! My experiences made me the strong, independent, hard working woman that I am today. My only wish now is that when my children look at me and the life I lived then and live now they will see their mom, a woman that despite my many mistakes, I learned important lessons along the way. Even though I had a rough start in school, I had the courage to go back. Education is an important key in making a better life. It is never too late to go back to school. Street smarts are important to have, but to have a well rounded education means getting a degree. They can use the lessons I learned to help them prepare themselves for a career and not just a job. That is how they can make a better life for their children. I hope they take my experiences and use them to make themselves better women. As far as education, I want them to know what they learn in school helps them make a better future.

Fables and Short Stories. the Fox and the Grape vs. a Pair of Tickets

Reading Fables and Short Stories Fables, parables and short stories all tell a story and all try to relay a meaningful message or moral. Fables tend to be shorter, use animals and clearly state the moral the author is trying to portray. Parables also tell a story and portray a message, but it basically illustrates a moral or religious lesson. Therefore, I guess it is safe to say that all parables can be fables but not all fables can be a parable. Short stories however tend to be a lot longer than a fable or parable and also use a lot of literary elements.These elements are plot, settings, point of view, characters, dialogue and others. In this essay, I will be talking about Aesop’s fable, â€Å"The Fox and the Grapes† and Amy Tan’s short story, â€Å"A Pair of Tickets. † I will try to explain the morals for each story and how the author portrays these morals. Aesop’s fable, â€Å"The Fox and the Grapes,† is a very short fable with a really bi g moral. It is simply a story about a famished fox trying to find food. He finally stumbles upon ripe grapes. However, instead of complaining that they are out of his reach, he concludes that they were inadequate and not good for eating.The reason this fable catches my attention is because I am amazed on how Aesop can put such an important moral in the fable by using a fox and grapes. Also, the fable is so short but also has such a big meaning. I believe there are many morals in the stories, such as, you can’t always get what you want. However, the main moral of this story, which is very clearly stated, is, â€Å"it is easy to despise what you can’t get† (Aesop 7). Since this fable is so short and has such a powerful moral, it is very easy to remember, making it very easy to retell. This fable also has such a hysterical plot twist and this is what makes it a great fable.The fox is supposedly so hungry but when he can’t reach the grapes, he all of a sudden is not hungry anymore and does not find the grapes appealing. This is why I think ‘plot twist’ is the most important part of a fable because it is when the moral is given to us. The short story, â€Å"A Pair of Tickets† by Amy Tan is about an American woman of Chinese descent who is struggling to accept her Chinese heritage. Jing-mei is the protagonist in this story and she is traveling to China with her father to meet her family and to understand her Chinese culture. The element that is most intriguing to me in this story is symbolism.I realize this when Jing-mei is on a train in China to go visit her family and it is so hot that the makeup on her face begins to literally melt off her face. â€Å"But I had not expected the heat in October. And now my hair hangs limp with humidity. I wear no makeup; in Hong Kong my mascara had melted into dark circles and everything else had felt like layers of grease. So today my face is plain, unadorned except for a thin mist of shiny sweat on my forehead and nose† (Tan 148). I believe the melting of the makeup symbolizes her acceptance of her Chinese heritage and is becoming a whole new person.It also symbolizes that she is growing up and finally realizing how important your heritage is to you and how it shapes the person you are. While Jing-mei is on this trip, I think she begins to realize that her family is more like her than she thought. When she meets her father’s family, her cousin Lili, she says, â€Å"I hold up the Polaroid camera, beckoning Lili with my finger. She immediately jumps forward, places one hand on her hip in the manner of a fashion model†¦ † (Tan 150). I think this is when she first realizes that maybe she isn’t that much different than her family in China.She probably thinks back at when she was younger and remembers that she had pose in the same manner her cousin Lili did. The other realization Jing-mei has that her family and China isn’t t hat much different than her and America is when she enters the hotel. â€Å"The hotel is magnificent. A bellboy complete with uniform and sharp-creased cap jumps forward begins to carry our bags into the lobby† (Tan 151). The hotels are as nice as she has most likely seen in America. She was most likely expecting a small hotel with nothing but a bed in the room. The hotel is also like a shopping mall with a bunch of shops in it.I believe all these things make Jing-mei realize she isn’t that different then the family she never knew and how important family is. In conclusion, Aesop’s fable, â€Å"The Fox and the Grapes, as well as Amy Tans short story, â€Å"A Pair of Tickets,† have a moral. Obviously, it is easier to find the moral in the fable, which is, it is easy to criticize something you can’t have. Howev11er, I believe the moral in â€Å"A Pair of Tickets,† is never lose sight of where you came from, always remember that family comes f irst and that you’re background and where you come from helps build your character.I don’t think it is wrong to reduce a short story to a simple ‘moral’ as one usually does in a fable or parable. I believe every writer writes his or her story to make a point or to teach a lesson. I think the writer is happy when the reader learns a lesson from his or hers stories. When writers use plot, setting, characters, or other literary elements, I believe they do this to paint a clearer picture for the reader so the reader can really understand the moral the author is trying to relay through the story.