Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Pepsi vs coca in india case Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Pepsi versus coca in india case - Essay Example Coca-Cola returned India in the mid 1990s when the Indian government received the approach of progression, privatization and globalization. At that point, PepsiCo had just obtained 26 percent of the cola section. Coca-Cola couldn't eat into the piece of the pie of existing players as the drink showcase was in the development stage. PepsiCo has been effectively reinforcing its non-cola portfolio in India. The organization has broadened into the lemon and orange portion of carbonated beverages and has likewise propelled its image of juices. PepsiCo accumulates one-fourth of its income from the non-cola section and is very much ready to exploit the shoppers changing tastes and inclinations. One the other hand, Coca-Cola’s leader brands; Coke and Thums Up are cola drinks. PepsiCo has likewise propelled its Aquafina image of packaged mineral water in India. The organization has caught a huge piece of the pie in the filtered water showcase which is relied upon to develop consistently later on. The immense item cluster of PepsiCo likewise incorporates Gatorade, an entrenched universal games drink brand. The developing wellbeing awareness among Indian purchasers is probably going to help Gatorade increase further footing in the Indian market. The rise of sports and activities in the day by day routine of Indian purchasers looks good for PepsiCo. PepsiCo utilizes suitable publicizing and deals advancement strategies remembering the Indian culture. Sponsorship of cricket and football competitions and superstar supports has hit the correct harmony with PepsiCo’s target advertise in

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Anatomy Of The Periodontium Sciences Essays

Life structures Of The Periodontium Sciences Essays Life structures Of The Periodontium Sciences Essay Life structures Of The Periodontium Sciences Essay The periodontium is characterized as the tissues puting and back uping the dentition ( Hassell, 1993 ) . It is made out of the undermentioned tissues: alveolar bone, root cementum, periodontic tendon and gum ( Lindhe et al. , 2008, Hassell, 1993 ) . The main guide of the periodontium is to connect the tooth deep down of the jaws for equivalent guide and to keep the solidarity of the outside of the masticatory mucous film of the unwritten pit ( Lindhe et al. , 2008 ) . It experiences adjustments with age, and is exposed to morphologic modifications comparable to utilitarian changes and changes in the unwritten condition ( Lindhe et al. , 2008 ) . The solid gum typically covers the alveolar bone and root to a degree simply coronal to the cementoenamel intersection ( Fig. 1 ) . The gum is ordered into the free fringy gum, the interdental gum and the partnered gum ( 187 ) . Gingivas are bit of the delicate tissue liner of the oral pit. They encompass the dentitions and flexibly a seal around them. Contrasted and the delicate tissue liners of the lips and cheeks, the greater part of the gum are firmly bound to the basic bone and are intended to challenge the conflict of supplement disregarding them ( Lindhe 2008 ; Narayanan 1996 ) . Solid gum is typically coral pink, however may join physiologic pigmentation. Changes in shading, unconventionally expanded aggravation, along with hydrops and an expanded tendency to shed blood, propose a redness that is perchance because of the growth of bacterial plaque ( Capa N, 2007 ) . The gum is partitioned anatomically into fringy, subsidiary and interdental nations. The fringy gum is the terminal outskirt of gum environing the dentition. In about portion of people, it is divided from the neighboring, connected gum by a shallow added substance despondency, the free gingival channel ( Capa N, 2007 ) The fringy gum is upheld and balanced out by the gingival strands. The partnered gum is continuous with the fringy gum. It is unfaltering, flexible, and firmly bound to the hidden periosteum of alveolar bone. The facial feature of the associated gum reaches out to the relatively free and portable alveolar mucous film, from which it is outlined by the mucogingival intersection. Connected gum may appear with surface texturing ( Schroeder HE, 1997 ) The interdental gum possesses the gingival port, which is the interproximal endless underneath the nation of tooth contact. The interdental gum can be pyramidic or have a hole shape.Attached gum is resistant to masticatory powers and ever keratinised ( Stephen Burke Dent IV, 1994 ) . Solid gum regularly has a shading that has been depicted as coral pink. Different colorss like reddish, white, and blue can mean redness ( gum disease ) or pathology. It has a smooth arcuate or scalloped visual perspective around every tooth. It other than fills and fits each interdental endless, not at all like the swollen gum papilla found in gum disease or the void interdental port seen in periodontic illness. Solid gum fasten tight to every tooth in that the gingival surface river to cut edge meager at the free gingival fringe. On the different manus, aroused gums have a puffy or moved fringe. It has a relentless surface that is invulnerable to movement, and the surface as often as possible shows surface texturing. Undesirable gum, on the different manus, is as often as possible arrogant and soft ( Seyedmajidi M, 2009 ) . The gingival strands are the connective tissue filaments that occupy the gingival tissue adjoining the dentition and help keep the tissue ardently against the dentition ( Itoiz, ME, 2002 ) . They are primarily formed to type I collagen, despite the fact that type III filaments are other than included These strands, in contrast to the strands of the periodontic tendon, when all is said in done, append the tooth to the gingival tissue, rather than the tooth to the alveolar bone ( Schroeder HE, 1997 ) . The gingival filaments hold the fringy gum against the tooth, gracefully the fringy gum with sufficient unbending nature to oppose the powers of bite without adulterating, capacity to settle the fringy gum by binding together it with both the tissue of the more firm associated gum each piece great as the cementum bed of the tooth ( Itoiz, ME, 2002 ) . There are three gatherings inside which gingival filaments are masterminded, they are dentogingival gathering, round gathering and transseptal gathering. The junctional epithelial tissue is that epithelial tissue which lies at the base of the gingival sulcus. It connects to the outside of the tooth with hemidesmosomes ( W.B. Saunders, 2002 ) . It lies immediately apical to the sulcular epithelial tissue, which lines the gingival sulcus from the base to the free gingival outskirt, where it interfaces with the epithelial tissue of the unwritten cavity.Cells in the junctional epithelial tissue will in general hold expansive between cell infinites, to let the transmittal of white platelets from blood vass to base of the gingival sulcus, to help hinder malady. Harm to the junctional epithelial tissue results in it being unpredictable in surface, rather than smooth, and the arrangement of pocket epithelial tissue, which is an essential manifestation of gingiva illness. The sulcular epithelial tissue is that epithelial tissue which lines the gingival sulcus. It is apically limited by the junctional epithelial tissue and meets the epithelial tissue of the unwritten pit at the height of the free gingival outskirt. The sulcular epithelial tissue is nonkeratinized ( W.B. Saunders, 2002 ) . The periodontic tendon, typically abridged as the PDL is a gathering of specific connective tissue filaments that fundamentally join a tooth to the alveolar bone inside which it sits. These strands help the tooth withstand the obviously huge compressive powers which happen during rumination and stay installed in the bone ( Sloan, P, 1978 ; Sloan, P, 1979 ) . Another guide of the PDL is to work as a start of proprioception, or centripetal excitation, with the goal that the encephalon can watch the powers being put on the dentitions and respond subsequently. To achieve this terminal, there are power per unit zone touchy receptors inside the PDL which permit the encephalon to detect the whole of power being put on a tooth during rumination, for delineation. This is of import on the grounds that the open surface of the tooth, called finish, has no such tactile receptors itself. In add-on to the PDL filaments, there is another arrangement of strands, known as the gingival filaments, which join the dentitions to their next gingival tissue. Both the gingival filaments, each piece great as the PDL strands, are made predominantly out of type I collagen ( Ten Cate, A. R, 1998 ) . The PDL is one of the four back uping tissues of a tooth, in any case alluded to as the periodontium. They are about 0.2 millimeters in expansiveness, and these measurements diminishing with age ( C. Kober, B, 2006 ) . As expressed, the PDL strands are made primarily out of type I collagen, in spite of the fact that type III filaments are other than included. Contrasted with most different tendons of the natural structure, these are amazingly vascularized. The PDL filaments are arranged fitting to their direction and area along the tooth, for example, collagen strands, gingival filaments, trans-septal strands, alveolar peak strands, flat strands, diagonal filaments, apical filaments, and interradicular strands ( Quigley, M.B, 1970 ; Cohn, S.A, 1972 ; Cohn, S.A, 1972 ) . Cementum is a particular calcified substance covering the foundation of a tooth. Cementum is discharged by cells called cementoblasts inside the foundation of the tooth and is thickest at the root vertex. Its shading is xanthous and it is milder than polish and dentin because of being less mineralized ( Jones SJ, 1972 ) . The main capacity of cementen inside the tooth is to work as a medium by which the periodontal tendons can append to the tooth for stableness. Consequently, its base surface is digression to the periodontic tendons going through the jaw ( by means of collagen strands ) , and the upper piece of the surface is unflinchingly solidified to the dentin of the tooth. It other than meets the lacquer lower on the tooth at the cemento-veneer intersection. Here the cementum is known as noncellular cementum because of its lack of cell constituents, and screens around 1/3-1/2 of the root ( Groeneveld MC, 1994 ) . The more penetrable signifier of cementen, cell cementum, covers 1/3-1/2 of the root vertex, where it ties to the dentin. There is other than a third sort of cementum, afibrillar cementum, which in some cases broadens onto the veneer of the tooth. The mucogingival intersection is the intercession between the more apically found alveolar mucous layer and the more coronally found partnered gum of the air sac ( Schroeder HE, 1979 ) . There exists a mucogingival intersection on each of the four gingival surfaces on which there exists openly impermeable alveolar mucous film: the facial gum of the upper jaw and both the facial and etymological gum of the mandible. The palatine gum of the upper jaw is continuous with the tissue of the top of the mouth, which is bound down to the palatine castanetss. Since the top of the mouth is infertile of unreservedly portable alveolar mucous layer, there is no mucogingival intersection ( W.B. Saunders, 2002 ) . Notices Hassell, TM. ( 1993 ) . Tissues and cells of the periodontium. Periodontol 2000 3, 9-38. Lindhe, J. , Karring, T. , and Araujo, M. ( 2008 ) . Life systems of the periodontium. In Clinical periodontology and embed dental medication, Lindhe, J. , Karring, T. , and Lang, N.P. fourth erectile brokenness Blackwell Publishing Limited pp. 3-? . Carranza s Clinical Periodontology, W.B. Saunders, 2002, 17-23. Itoiz, ME ; Carranza, FA: The Gingiva. In Newman, MG ; Takei, HH ; Carranza,

Sunday, August 9, 2020

Topic Organisational Structure And Nursing Leadership management - 1 (3)

Topic Organisational Structure And Nursing Leadership/management Essay Topic: Organisational Structure And Nursing Leadership/management â€" Essay Example > IntroductionWith the increased awareness of the organizations studies, it has also become increasingly important that companies evaluate their structure, climate, and culture to ensure that they don’t hinder the organization’s objectives and goals. Studies show that organization performance is highly affected by its structure Phegan (2000) stress this point when he points out that an organization structure and culture defines how work is done in an organization. Organizational studies can be defined as study of organization from different perspectives, techniques, and using various standards of analysis. For example that study may focus on micro behaviour of the organization or the macro study of the organization. The Hospital chosenThis paper will be based on the New York City’s public Hospital System (HHC) is the biggest municipal public hospital and a health care system in the country; it has its central office at 125 worth street in New York. The hospital system boosts o f 7,407 beds with clinical visits of more than 4 million patients visiting the facilities very year. The hospital estimates show that the hospital is worth $5.4 billion and it serves more than 1.3 new Yorkers and more than 400,000 people who have no medical insurance. the HHC provides health care, mental care and offers services in substance abuse, this is done through the HHC’s 11 acute care hospital, nursing facilities, six big diagnostic and treatment units and over 80 community based clinics located in various location around the city. The health facility also provides home care services to new Yorkers. (HHC 2007) Organization structureOrganization structure can be defined as the way the organization management is arrangement, different organization structures are employed in different organization pending to various aspects that includes size of the organization, or type of the products the organization is dealing. New York City’s public Hospital System (HHC) has an organ ization structure which is based on divisional structure. This type organization structure is formed in a manner which allows the organization to split the organization into small self managed divisions which operates with some independence. This type of organization structure has allowed the hospital units to perform their duties without hindrance. (Phegan, 2000)Below is the organization structure of New York City’s public Hospital System (HHC)Mission The mission statement of the hospital is underlined below; To provide equally to all people in New York, without regarding their capability of paying, a high quality, comprehensive health care services in a surrounding of care, humane, respect and dignity. To advance and protect, as both advocate and innovator of health, well-being and safety of the New Yorkers; To join together with other health workers and the societies in a joint venture which will ensure that each of the institutions support and care for health services in it†™s fullest aspect. , of total physical, social and mental well- being of individuals. (HHC, 2007)Strategic objectivesHHC has a number of strategic objectives to make sure that the Hospital continuous improving and making innovations which have discerned the public hospital system. These strategic objectives are;

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Pros And Cons Of Pornography - 731 Words

Luke Smith Mrs. Keeth English II 1 November, 2017 Pornography Positives According to the article â€Å"Is Porn a Threat to Public Health?† â€Å"The average age at which boys first see porn has dropped to 10 1/2† (Lo, par. 2). Many Americans would see this statistic as problematic and believe such exposure harms young people. However, there are several reasons why that is incorrect. Benefits of exposure to pornography include the minimal risks of sexual behavior and watching porn, the criminalization of serious sexual acts and crimes, and the multiple benefits of watching or participating in sexual acts. Therefore, pornography and/or sexual acts in teenagers pose minimal risks and should not be governmentally regulated or criminally punished.†¦show more content†¦In fact, according to Luke Detwiler, a sixteen year old student and fellow christian at the United Church of Christ, â€Å"The pictures demonstrating what sexual intercourse looks like were â€Å"shocking to kids, but also helpful. It helped them gr asp another dimension of sexuality.†Ã¢â‚¬  (Lobron, par. 3). Some researchers suggest there may actually be benefits associated with watching pornography. There are different benefits of watching or participating in sexual activities, such as increased testosterone, dramatic changes in mood, and education about sexual contact in teenagers. While engaged in sexual contact with another human, studies suggest that a person’s mood will drastically change during intercourse. This drastic mood change is caused by an increased testosterone; these moods are good moods most always. In fact, as the article â€Å"Watching Porn Not a Big Deal, Study Suggests.† states, â€Å"A sample of men and women is telling researchers that pornography generally has no negative effects on their relationships, and some potential benefits.†.(Blackwell, par. 3). While increased testosterone can make a person extremely joyful, it can also make many different people have moods such as being grateful, happy, or feeling blessed. According to the article â€Å"Watching Porn Not a Big Deal, Study Suggests.†, a survey was conducted about watch ingShow MoreRelatedThe Pros And Cons Of Pornography887 Words   |  4 PagesMacKinnon asserts that pornography is ‘more act-like than thought-like’. In other words, it is an illocutionary act, in which the act of expression itself constitutes the intended action of silencing and subordinating women. It silences women by privileging the male perspective to such an extent that the female perspective disappears; it subordinates women by placing them in the role of a mere object to be used for the sexual satisfaction of men, thus enabling men to exert power over women. TheRead MoreThe Pros and Cons of the Criminalization of Pornography1906 Words   |  8 PagesThe Pros and Cons of the Criminalization of Pornography Americans were alternatively shocked, alarmed and delighted when Marilyn Monroe appeared on the cover of the first Playboy magazine in 1953. Since that time, the debate over pornography has become increasingly heated, due in large part to critics who argue that the medium debases women and teaches young people the wrong lessons about human sexuality. To gain some fresh insights about these issues, this paper provides a review of the relevantRead More The Pros and Cons of Pornography Essay951 Words   |  4 Pagesclick of a mouse, millions world-wide are able to access pornography and see their sexual fantasies come to life (King 418). According to King, â€Å"One third of all use of the internet is connected to porn sites,† (419). With explicit sexual material nearly impossible to avoid, it may be difficult to decipher between what is normal sexual behavior and what is merely fantasy. There is belief that the sexual activities of women presented in pornography effect both gen ders’ perceptions of what is normal femaleRead MoreEssay about The Pros and Cons of Internet Pornography1174 Words   |  5 PagesDating back all the way to the 1980’s, before the internet, pornography was still a very popular and readily accessible phenomenon sweeping the nation. Many groups have tried to shut down the whole institution for the stigma it has of being very distasteful and obscene. These groups, including feminists, religious groups, and even the Reagan administration, for years, have been working toward legislation to outlaw pornography.(Suderman) What they don’t realize is that they are actually trying toRead More Got Internet Pornography? Essay1283 Words   |  6 PagesGot Internet Pornography? Pornography is viewed differently by everyone. Is pornography as bad as it is made out to be? What if it is that persons outlet from reality, just like smoking, drinking, snowboarding, skiing. Is it hurting anyone. Some say it is degrading to women. Do those women that do it think it is degrading. If they did they wouldn’t do it. There are several different types of pornography in the world. It started in art where we had sculptures of Aphrodite naked, we had many artistsRead MoreFeminism and Pornography: Differing Views1221 Words   |  5 PagesThe pornography debate has been an issue within the feminist movement that has been pushed to the periphery in recent times. It is not as widely seen on the main stage of the feminist agenda and this may be because of a division in feminist thought with regards to pornography. Generally speaking, there are â€Å"pro-sex† feminists who believe that women have the right to do what they wish with their bodies and there are â€Å" pro-censorship† feminists who believe pornography is inherently degrading and violentRead MoreCause Of Social Media Essay702 Words   |  3 Pagessocial media to increase knowledge. Social media can be a daily entertainment. if humans depend on social media then humans will not be able to let go. Human daily will depend on social media. Social media can give a effect or impact. There is pro and contra. Pro of socal media is humans can interact with foreign, and new information, assist in getting jobs, can help teen used technology, and easier to study. For the children, they can get a information from youtube. Kids love funny things like slimeRead MorePros For The Advancement Of Technology921 Words   |  4 Pagesand bring information from your fingertips to your eyes in a matter of seconds. The list of pros for the advancement of technology is almost endless and the cons may not be as large. Depending on your parenting style, the pros and cons could be switched around for those families. While the advantages are numerous the disadvantages and dangers can be just as long. Some of those dangers include pornography, racist propaganda, child predators and violent material just to name a few. Without taking anRead MoreInternet Censorship Of China, South Africa And Other Countries1851 Words   |  8 Pagesflow of chil d pornography, curbing false information, or putting a nation’s interests first), it can be viewed as bad from another perspective (in terms of cutting down on the opportunity to inform sides of a dialogue, promoting free exchange of ideas, or discussing why one form of pornography is allowed but not another). This paper will show why Internet censorship can be interpreted in both positive and negative ways depending on the perspective that one adopts (whether one is pro-Statist or anti-Statist)Read MoreAre Child Beauty Pageants Exploitative?1236 Words   |  5 Pagestheir future outlook on life, and it is a form of abuse. Part of society says that beauty pageants are not necessarily a bad thing, but there are the good and bad parts. All in all, pageants promote self-esteem and build instant self-confidence (Pros and Cons of Child Beauty Pageants). It is beneficial to the child’s self-esteem in a way that it helps the child to step out of their comfort zone and overcome their shyness. This gives the child the confidence they need to showcase their talents as well

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Athlete Motivation - 2452 Words

Athlete Motivation Introduction Motivation is one of the biggest ways in which great coaches have developed winning programs throughout the centuries. There are many ways to motivate athletes but what are the best? Has motivating athletes changed with each generation? In sports athletes are often asked to raise their level of play in order to be successfully and understanding how to motivate any athlete will enable a coach to not only ask for more out of his team or player but to also get what he asks for. In order to be successful coaches must be able to motivate because players do not simply go out and do their best or train harder on their own. As humans we love to be motivated which is why movies such as Rudy, Apollo†¦show more content†¦We had to. That’s the nature of the business if you want to be around for any length of time† (p. 104). Dungy knew that in order to change the culture of the Bucs from a losing one to one where winning was tradition, he had to motivate the play ers in a new way. One of the ways that athletes are often motivated is by there environment. If they are surrounded by success then they will often be successful themselves because they see it happening around them and they want to be a part of it. Dungy knew that if a team was surrounded by a coaching staff that made excuses and allowed them to do that as well, the culture would remain full of losers. When he first took over the Bucs, Dungy sought to motivate his players through his own example. Dungy also held his team to a very high standard. He set goals that were high enough for his team to dream a little but not so high that they were unattainable. Dungy seemed to understand that a combination of environmental change and competitive goal setting would provide the right amount of motivation for his team to be successful. Dungy understood a key in motivating players and in coaching, something that his mentor Coach Chuck Noll said, â€Å"[c]hampions are champions not because they do a nything extraordinary but because they do the ordinary things better thanShow MoreRelatedStudent Athlete Motivation : Athletes918 Words   |  4 Pages Student Athlete Motivation Motivation is the foundation of all athletic effort and compliment or simply defined as the ability to initiate and persist at a task (Taylor). All athletes at all levels have their own motivation. They all have that will that pushes them to complete a task. There are also athletes that have low motivations but still participate. Athletes are usually in school unless they play at a professional level, the ones that are not professional are student athletes. Student athletesRead MoreApplying Sociological Theory Into Everyday Life1224 Words   |  5 PagesI worked at the Ohio University Athletic Department, and was involved in student-athlete academic welfare.   When it was time to write my final research paper, I settled upon the topic of women in sports.   I wanted to analyze women’s meaningful contributions and accomplishments within sports, their leadership roles in sports, and what the future of sports could potentially hold for them. I worked with female athletes and what I saw this semester inspired me to write about this topic. My goal is toRead MoreCoaching For The Real Win. The Early 1900 Was When Sports2033 Words   |  9 PagesSports has been shown to benefit the student athlete in more than one aspect of their lives, but that does not come automatically with just playing sports. While I do believe that participating in sports has a positive effect on players, it is not just the sport that do the trick. No matter the style of coaching, the most important thing a coach can do is be a positive influence on every aspect of the athlete’s life by forming a relationship with their athlete. There are many unique qualities to makeRead MoreMotivation As A Foundation For All Sports Around The World1555 Words   |  7 PagesMotivation forms a foundation for all sports around the world. (Spray, Wang, Biddle Chatzisarantis 2006).It is of vital importance for athletes to improve the degree of determination and desire of sporting performance, because it can be the decisive factor for emotional control, strengthening attention, improving confidence and degree of loving sports. For an individual to become the best in any sports activity, motivation is crucial as it helps him or her to do the necessary to maximize his orRead MoreMotivation in Sports1245 Words   |  5 PagesMotivation in sports is why people do what they do. It is also the direction and intensity of one’s effort and determination to achieve. The more motivated one is, the more likely one is to succeed. Sports—which involve emotion, competition, cooperation, achievement, and play—provide a rich area for psychological study. People involved in sports attempt to master very difficult skills, often subjecting themselves to intense physical stress as well as social pressure. research has expandedRead MoreLeadership Scale For Sports Developed By Chelladurai And Saleh1274 Words   |  6 Pagesimpactful presence on the participation of sport. Various leadership styles and tendencies are displayed by coaches and administrators and we look to examine how these dimensions of leadership correlate with participant responsiveness, satisfaction, and motivation. In addition to the effects of leadership on participation, the effectiveness of multi-dimensional leaders will be discussed as well as the examination of leadership behaviors that yield the most satisfactory results among participants. It is importantRead More Motivating an Athletic Performer Essay1483 Words   |   6 Pagesdifferent types of motivation and how each affects the performers in various ways. Positive and negative issues of the types of motivation will be discussed to determine which is the best method of motivation and why. It will also illustrate how these motivational theories are used to motivate a performer. This essay will be concluded by stating the best motivation method, and how a coach or teacher could use it in motivating a performer. Motivation can be described inRead MoreCommunicating With Your Athletes : An Important Aspect When Becoming A Successful Coach1311 Words   |  6 Pages Communicating with your athletes is an important aspect when becoming a successful coach. Successful coaches are masterful communicators, and unsuccessful coaches often fail not because of poor communication but because of poor communication skills. Effective communication is just as essential to successful coaching just as it is to successful careers. There are three basic dimensions of communication: 1- Sending and receiving messages, 2- Verbal and nonverbal communication, and 3- Content and emotionRead MoreTransformational And Transactional Coaching Styles Affect Program Philosophy1015 Words   |  5 Pagesthe most benefit without regard to his players. For example, winning benefits the coach by feeding his ego, so the coach may use players just to win more games. After playing for several transactional coaches, Ehrmann (20 11) wrote, â€Å"they ignored athletes developmental needs and often manipulated and distorted the values of winning and losing† (p.7). As a result, the transactional coach disregards any long-term benefits of playing the game and makes decisions for the short-term benefits such as winningRead MoreMotivation, Intrinsic And Extrinsic Motivation756 Words   |  4 PagesMotivation is a very important factor no matter what sport you coach or what the team or athlete goals are. A true coach must be able to understand their athlete and be able to tap into their motivation, maximizing their performance. Chapter four was written about two particular types of motivation, intrinsic and extrinsic. No matter what theory you believe, all theories boil down to these two types of motivation. Knowing the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, can help you hone

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

An Old Man’s Winter Night Free Essays

An Old Man’s Winter Night by Robert Frost All out-of-doors looked darkly in at him Through the thin frost, almost in separate stars, That gathers on the pane In empty rooms. What kept his eyes from giving back the gaze Was the lamp tilted near them in his hand. What kept him from remembering what it was That brought him to that creaking room was age. We will write a custom essay sample on An Old Man’s Winter Night or any similar topic only for you Order Now He stood with barrels round him†at a loss. And having scared the cellar under him In clomping there, he scared it once again In clomping off;†and scared the outer night, Which has Its sounds, familiar, like the roar Of trees and crack of branches, common things, But nothing so Ilke beating on a box. A light he was to no one but himself Where now he sat, concerned with he knew what, A quiet light, and then not even that. He consigned to the moon†such as she was, So late-arising†to the broken moon As better than the sun in any case For such a charge, his snow upon the roof, His icicles along the wall to keep; And slept. The log that shifted with a Jolt Once in the stove, disturbed him and he shifted, And eased his heavy breathing, but still slept. One aged man†one man†can’t keep a house, A farm, a countryside, or If he can, It’s thus he does it of a winter night. An Old Man’s Winter Night is written by the American poet Robert Frost in 1916. He went through a lot of tragedies during the whole life. After experiencing the death his mother, his grandfather and his 2 children, the sense of helpness inevitably worked to shape and color the views of life’s possibilities. It’s unforeseeable for Frost to predict what will happen tomorrow so that he was called a poet who terrifies†. That’s why the peotry is a mix of the calm and rural. The peaceful surface with an underlying darkness is an uncommon feature in this poetry. Symbolism Forst is representative of cold winter, â€Å"separate stars† showing hope and comfort of the mysterious and dangerous outer world at night. â€Å"gathers on the pane†lmpersonate the forst to make the atmosphere warmer and more quiet. â€Å"cellar†, â€Å"branches†, â€Å"log fired†create some scaring sounds In the winter’s night to emphasize the peaceful and lonely environment. The dark colours of these ugly and hard images snow tne repressed emotions. lamp† â€Å"Tire† make Teel warm ana peaceTul, Drlng llgnt to the dark and cold night to eliminate the feeling of scare. The poet tells us how he as â€Å"a light for no one but himself†, yet again confirms how isolated he is. Frost uses many different literary devices throughout the poem. Imagery which appeals to our sight, touch and hearing senses. Frost has used Imagery such as â€Å"In clomping there, he scared it once again† which appeals to our touch because you can almost feel how he has stomped the floor to try and frighten off the unknown. He has appealed to our hearing senses by using personification, â€Å"like the roar of trees† lets you almost hear how the trees were thrashing around on the cold winter night. Using contraries and ontradictions is another characteristic of this poetry. For example, the scaring sounds and the peaceful and quiet atmosphere make the old man feel more threaten and lonely. The warm light and fire in the room is on the contrary to the dark and cold winter to convey the scare of the unknown outer world of the old man. Also, Frost determinde to continue his old syle of using common, everday speech. It is simple to understand the superficial meaning of his poetry instead of the underlying theme. The poetry tells that an old man stands alone in his house in the middle of winter. His memory and legs crippled by old age ambles around his house without remembering who he was or even what he was doing. At one point, he becomes frightened by the cellar beneath his feet and the dark night outside, and he stomps his feet loudly to frighten away the unknown. Eventually the old man dozes in front of the fire, after being disturbed by a shifting log, falls into a deeper sleep. The rural images like â€Å"forst† â€Å"cellar† â€Å"tree† â€Å"lamp† â€Å"moon† to convey his emotion of scaring and isolation. An Old Man’s Winter Night creates a concrete view ofa lonely and amnesiac old man in the wooden house. I can see an old man who is trying to get away from the scaring environment and finally he succeed in sleeping beside the warm fire. An Old Man’s Winter Night deals with the predicament of an old man who is dying on a cold winter’s night. From the title of this poem, the reader might expect a warm and cozy narrative about an old man in front of a crackling fire. Frost denies this comforting expectation and instead creates a haunting narrative. What is the most scaring point is that the old man has lost his memory and it seems nonsense to exist in this world. But he still keep a house, a farm in the countryside. As to the emotion author wants to express, I think, it’s relative to the life story of him. At that time, he still didn’t sell his farm and enjoyed the life being a farmer in the countryside. However, the death of his children make him to imagine the future life in his old age. He is afraid that people will forget him and he will die by himself without accompanying by his children. This kind of depressed emotion influence the poem. The readers will find a poor old man struggling to prove his value to live. From my perspective, I feel merciful to the old man. He was place at the position of finding o clues to who and where he is. Maybe he is in his home but he cannot find the sense of belonging and he would like to risk for the dangers. He absolutely knows that the outer night is dangerous and he still goes out and talk to the moon. I can feel the old man is who really wants to get cares and love from other people but he cannot know what is going on. He is representative of the Frost and they are all want to escape from the scare of death and company. Obviously we can see from the poem, Frost treasured his country life and this kind of life really give him sparks in wrltlng poems mos OITTerent Trom tneme 0T otner Frosts poems, tney focus on the isolation from the modern society, on the contrary, this poem doesn’s want to express this kind of meaning. http://www.studymode.com/essays/An-Old-Man’s-Winter-Night-Analysis-1602199.html http://www.gradesaver.com/the-poetry-of-robert-frost http://www.english.illinois.edu/Maps/poets/a_f/frost/frost.htm http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/a_f/frost/oldman.htm http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/A_f/frost/fireice.htm How to cite An Old Man’s Winter Night, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Ethics Education And Training Will Reduce Corporate Collapses Globally

Question: Discuss about the Impact of Ethics Education and Training on reducing Corporate Collapses Globally in the Future. Answer Ethics are the study of moral standards and the rulings Due to the varied range of secretarial facilities and recent business collapses, courtesy has been drawn to ethical values acknowledged within the accounting occupation. Helps in understanding the corpotrate values and enables them to implement in the business and that wil lead to effective corporate culture Balancing the stake of various shareholders and investors It processes intregity It retains good talented persons at all levels of an group want to be remunerated fairly for their effort and devotion (Mitchell, 2001) It has a positive work environment as it will reduce corporate collapses as people will work together and there will be user friendly environment There will be proper redressed of grievance which is called the top to bottom approach and it will help in proper effective work. They develop positive relations with co-workers. Their managers trust them with intimate material evidences and information and they are often given more independence as a consequence It avoid legal problems which are very important as there are proper moral values, rules, ethics that help them in achieving success. It actually builds customer loyalty as good ethics will let consumers believe that they are being taken advantage of and proper confidentiality is maintained Proper shareholders ,investors grievances, third parties are being redressed. With proper ethics there are no theft that generally happens in business sue to work not being recognised and etc. Companies that preserve the uppermost ethical standards take the time to train every associate of the group about the manner that is expected of them (Hill, 2016) Ethics education and training will have little or no impact on reducing corporate collapses globally in the future. Business ethics decreases a company's freedom to exploit its profit. For example, an international company may move its industrial facility to an emerging country to decrease prices. Developments in working circumstances, such as a living salary and good fitness and safety standards decrease the level of cost-savings that the company produces. Though, it could be contended that the limitations on company liberty benefit broader society. Accordingly, ethical immodesties by accountants can be harmful to society, resultant in suspicion by the community and disturbance of well-organized money market processes. Ethics has no impact as the following things are still continue to happen There has been numerous scams, deceptive monetary examination, as well as bribery. Many fraudulent practices are still on continuing. After good ethical practices also the company does not show true and fair opinion of financial declarations. There can be too much of ethical dilemmas that will lead to corporate collapse. Ethical activities resulting in suspicion by the community and disturbance of well-organized capital marketplace processes. After ethical practices also , the auditors are unable to discover any fraud in the books of accounts Corporate philosophyas well as the standards it anxieties may damagingly alter an bookkeeper's behaviour This atmosphere could subsidize to the degradation of ethical standards. It gives inequality globally as Codes of conduct are often drafted, in part, to safeguard that all members of an association are treated similarly. Though, in top equal organization and original locations are assumed a "bye" on certain cryptograms, for example limiting how the worker meetings about the business or to what grade staffs are allowed to have individual relations outside of effort. It brings unenforceability which is harmful for the corporations. The code of conduct brings unethical behaviour . When employees are not allowed to speak about the enterprise as they have the pressure of losing the job even the company is having an unprincipled repetition. Lack of stability are there, even many encryptions of demeanour are advanced out of business values, mission declarations and even past occurrences of corporation rudeness, there is infrequently whatever holding companies to their own programmes of behaviour. The crux is that they are not at all stable and keep on fluctuating. With proper ethics like corporate governance like management rise from a lack of oversight, emotional commercial choices by an ingrained board of managements, and the high cost of altering course once a commercial path shows to be unsuccessful. It leads to misalignment as no matter how magnificent the arguments of an assignment or vision statement, they cannot stimulate worker action if the business philosophy will not care for it (Macdonald, 2016) It is very costly as evolving, applying and upholding an ethics passivity package within the association can be luxurious and laborious. Appropriate management of an morals database often needs the signing of an beliefs officer and the promise of company financial and staffs resources. Bribery and grease expenditures are there as some republics, predominantly African nations, are familiar to receiving "grease expenditures" as a way of getting administrative tasks attained in fewer time or favour with local establishments (Capozzi, n.d) There are lots of maintenance of separation like shareholders meeting, board of director meeting, the files should be separated, there will be so much of corporate formalities which leads to corporate failure due to mismanagement and corruption. The disadvantage of governance and maintaining ethics can be such that the Majors and the board of managements have obligatory duties to perform in the finest attention of the company. If they break those responsibilities by not imparting proper training truthful and judicious care, they can be held accountable and thus loss of the corporation. References Hill, B. (2016).Advantages of ethical behaviour in business . Retrieved 09 December 2016 from https://smallbusiness.chron.com/advantages-ethical-behavior-business-21067.html Mitchell, J. (2001). Why ethical leadership is a good business. Retrieved 09 December 2016 from https://www.cebcglobal.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/The_Ethical_Advantage_Why_Ethical_Leadership_is_Good_Business.pdf Russell, A. (2005).Importance of ethics. Retrieved 09 December 2016 from https://oureverydaylife.com/benefits-importance-ethics-workplace-7414.html Macdonald, L. (2016).Advantages and disadvantages of business ethics. Retrieved 09 December 2016 from https://smallbusiness.chron.com/advantages-disadvantages-business-ethics-10414.html Capozzi, C. (n.d). The disadvantages of International business ethics. Retrieved 09 December 2016 from https://www.ehow.com/info_7736609_disadvantages-international-business-ethics.html

Sunday, March 22, 2020

Longest River Denial Essays - Behavior, Human Behavior,

Longest River: Denial The Longest River: Denial A hallmark of someone who is engaging in this addiction pattern, but who has not accepted that their behavior is out of their control, is denial. Denial is a psychological defense mechanism that enables a person to continue to engage in a behavior in spite of relatively obvious negative consequences on their life. Its a way to protect ourselves from seeing or feeling things that are unpleasant. In the case of the gambling addict, there may be repeated warnings from his or her spouse that they will not tolerate continued spending of household savings, job loss, and constant harassment by creditors. In light of this, the gambling addict will still deny that they have a problem with gambling and will believe that they have complete control over their actions. Denial permits one to distort reality, a very powerful psychological defense; it can have devastating consequences on our life, and the ability to disregard such negative consequences while continuing the behavior is a hallmark of denial. Denial is present, to some extent or another, in all addictions. Its necessary, in the development of an addictive process, to experience a sense of denial while the addiction is beginning to take hold. Otherwise we would not continue with the addictive behaviors. Because of denial, the impact of our negative behavior is never fully appreciated until the consequences become so overwhelming that they can no longer be ignored. This is sometimes referred to as hitting bottom. People may continue their behavior indefinitely, with no recognition of the negative consequences of their actions, in spite of numerous personal disasters. Often an individual will not seek help for a specific problem, unless theyve recognized that they are no longer in control of the situation and need help. This usually happens at a point when the negative impact of their addiction has become grossly obvious and their denial is broken. It is a process that cannot be rushed. Each person has to discover their own time frame for how and when to deal with their addiction. This, of course, can be very frustrating for family and friends of the addict, who often notice the problem long before the addict does. Negative consequences of Internet use vary considerably. I have been consulted on Internet cases where employees have been caught using their work computer for personal Internet access (in some cases wasting considerable company time and/or downloading sexually related material onto their computer). In some cases, individuals could be charged with sexual harassment as a consequence of exposing fellow employees to sexually explicit material against their will (even accidentally!). There may even be a legal liability for employers who allow (even unknowingly) their employees to use the company network to send personal email or other material that might be seen as objectionable by others. Ive also seen numerous cases of couples with significant marital or relationship problems due to Internet abuse; at times even resulting in child custody investigations! Everyday I hear or receive stories of people who are getting into trouble with their online behavior at home or at work. It may take the form of abusing the Net by staying online longer than you had planned, having cybersex/cyberaffairs, or spending too much money online by gambling, stock trading, shopping, or auctioning. . I fear that as broadband access increases from the current 6% level, that we will see an increase in compulsive Internet use; The increase may occur because just as the faster modes of absorption of a drug increases the addictive potential a drug. Broadband Internet access could provide the hit in a much more rapid manner enabling a faster psychological impact and effect. This may translate into a more habit-forming experience. Few people, except for those who have had a problem, recognize the power and attraction of being online. This is changing rapidly however. Although it is probably not an epidemic, I have little doubt that millions of people are experiencing a negative impact in their lives because of their compulsive use of the Internet and I believe that number will continue to grow. Recognition of both the dark and light side of the Internet will enable us to be served by technology, instead of

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Integrated Marketing Communication

Integrated Marketing Communication Abstract The currently integrated marketing communication concepts have been developing overtime. They have moved from the historical marketing approaches that focused on the 4Ps to the current interactive market-place IMC.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Integrated Marketing Communication specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The argument is that marketing itself and marketing communication concepts are developing. The development of the integrated marketing communication is illustrated through structural and theoretical perspectives of three market-places which are presented according to location and information technology control. The assertion is that as information technology changes from one market-place to the next, definitive changes in the need for communication also develop. In addition, a furnished description of integrated marketing communication concept is provided. Based on this description, a four-stage alt eration of IMC progression has been anticipated as businesses move from one period of IMC to the next based on their capabilities in capturing and managing information technology. Introduction In the last two decades, marketing and marketing communication have been working differently from the previous periods. In fact, marketing and marketing communication are under crucial scrutiny especially with the advent of information communication technology (Cornelissen Lock, 2000).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Marketing and marketing communication emerge not only under the scrutiny of the organization boardrooms but also questioned around the globe. This scenario is quite unique, given the current information age. From this contrast, it can be deduced that marketing and marketing communication are undergoing a transformation. These evolutions provide a stage in which new approaches to marketing, communication and marketing communication could be innovated and implemented. Various researches recently done indicate that the integration of marketing communication tools offer the best solution to the current problems being faced. Integration is the incorporation of a wide range of activities and functions that have influence and impact on the dynamic flow of information between the firm and the stakeholders (Belch Belch, 2006). The stakeholders in this case comprise of the customers, employees, shareholders, prospects as well as other crucial audiences. In other words, focusing on independent disciplines such as the public relations, advertising and sales promotion no longer holds true. It is also inappropriate to limit the responsibilities of marketing communication to a single outbound channel of communication. These are old concepts that have been found to be unable to fit and fulfill the needs of the current organization, customers or prospects .Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Integrated Marketing Communication specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These concepts no longer fit the current firms because they were developed for those organizations that no longer drive businesses and for the market-place that do not exist as well as for media organizations whose dominances are long gone (Belch Belch, 2006). Therefore, there is need for an integrated form of marketing communication that incorporates all the disciplines of marketing, and that can fit the current scenario alongside meeting the need of the current market. This paper will be discussing this form of integrated marketing communication as it appears in the twenty-first century, putting emphasis on its application in the last twenty years. The paper will discuss how organizations have been applying the integrated marketing communication giving detailed applications, providing examples of those organizati ons which have failed and those that have succeeded in their quest for integrated marketing communication. The discussions will be in relation to the approaches of IMC applied in the current global market-place. Transformations of marketing communication It has been found that approaches to IMC have gone through minimal changes. However, the market-place where most organizations operate have transformed substantially (Fill, 1999). The dynamic transformations have been driven by the application of information technology. The traditional market-place was dominated by the mass market where the mass media-driven organizations were devoted to product differentiation.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These organizations employed the information technology in areas including mass distribution systems, consumer research and mass media to capture the largest share of the market (Cornelissen Lock, 2000). They also applied such strategies, including product differentiation and brand development in order to dominate the market. Early market-places were dominated by first entry organizations. By virtue of being the first in the market-place, these organizations captured the larger market share, dominated the media and distribution channels as well as consumer using distinguished services or products which could not easily be simulated (Hutton, 1996). With the development of technology, market-place began to change as products proliferated, albeit few attributes to distinguish them from their competitors (Hutton, 1996). In addition, the media became more specialized and fragmented. There was tremendous consolidation within channel segments. The acquisitions and integration of business have been occurring at a higher frequency as stronger organizations continue to acquire weaker competitors and expand the franchise into new regions and markets (Kitchen De Pelsmacker, 2004). As a result, businesses that were traditionally localized have expanded to international levels giving buyers massive influence on bargaining with the manufacturers (Fill, 1999). As the organizations go through these changes, information technology also shifted its focus to the distribution channels away from the marketers or manufacturers. The computers, Universal Product Code dubbed UPC, magnetic strip bank, scanners and credit cards made it cheap, easy and fast to capture data on consumers (Pickton Broderick, 2005). For instance, who the consumers are, where they buy and what are their preferences. The shift in IT altered the power in the market-place with the distribution channels being favored over the marketers and the manufacturers (Schultz Schultz, 1998). The reason is that the distr ibution channels have more information than the markets or the manufactures. Today, the consumer product categories are dominated by retail that has close relationship with the consumer. With this realization, the large organization has changed their marketing strategy using highly sophisticated retail distribution channels. Changes in the market-place as a result of information technology determines the way large organizations will be spending their marketing funds through pricing and location to sway and hold the customers (Schultz Schultz, 1998). Currently, the market-place is dominated by the retail and distribution systems that control the direct access to consumers and end-users. However, a new model is emerging where the consumers are dominating. The reason is that the consumers have become the controller of IT. Systems such as the tall free numbers, international credit cards, overnight delivery services have already been developed and in the hands of the consumer (Schultz Schultz, 1998). With these technology consumers can identify the products, easily access information and make purchases at any time and in any place they find convenient. The current market-place is interactive, fast and easy, driven by internet and World Wide Web and it is more convenient than ever before (Shimp, 2008). This form of market is brought about by IT, which in effect drives the electronic commerce. In other words, IT has changed the status quo where the market-place is driven by the needs of the consumers, when they need the product and the condition in which they want their products. In addition, the consumers have a direct linkage with the producers; make a decision on important issues, the product values and the type of correlations are required (Schultz Schultz, 1998). The need for new approaches to marketing communication It is unfortunate that the existing marketing and marketing communication advances and theories are intended for the conventional market-place. The indication is that new changes that are taking place in the current market-place have not been tested or new models have not been developed for the current market-place practices. The market-place is currently moving towards the consumer from the marketer/manufacturer domination (Pickton Broderick, 2005). It is as a result of IT that these changes are taking place. The transformation of IT is the driving force for these changes and at the same time, enables communication solutions. As discussed, IT was formerly used by the marketing/manufacturing organizations so as to have the market power, it then used by the distribution channels and eventually exceeded to the consumer (Schultz Schultz, 1998). Each of these market-places has specific needs of marketing and marketing communication tools. Moreover, every market-place has a fundamental necessity to put together the communications. However, these integration communication need becomes more complex as market-place changes (Schu ltz Schultz, 1998). As was mentioned before, marketing and marketing communications must transform to be in accordance with the needs of the current market-place (Pickton Broderick, 2005). Successful organizations tend to adopt new communication tools that are appropriate to each market position. Moreover, as the organizations changes to the new market-places, they encounter various challenges in their marketing communication program (Hutton, 1996). These challenges signify the stages of integrated marketing communication. In as much as organizations have moved away from the traditional market-places, some categories of organizations in some places are still found in such market. For instance, those organizations protected by patents and organizations that enjoy near absolute or absolute monopolistic distribution advantages or products (Schultz Schultz, 1998). However, as deregulation and competition increase the advantages these companies enjoy will eventually erode. In this tra ditional market-place, the main communication challenge is to come up with compelling and concordant massages, which can be delivered in a coordinated and synergistic way (Schultz Schultz, 1998). This is a challenge particularly as the structure of the companies operating in these markets expands and they become international. Initially, integrated marketing communication was a response to the practical needs of the organization to achieve greater impact and consistency across diverse products divisions and regions (Schultz Schultz, 1998). Some organizations still use the same approach. As the market develops into the current market-place, organizations need to be imaginative and novel in their marketing plan. In addition, they must create a better configuration between the marketing and marketing communication as well as field sales forces to enhance the significance of their brand in the eyes of both the channel and ultimate purchasers (Schultz Schultz, 1998). This demands for coordinated, multi-level approach to communication that take into consideration end-users channel customers, consumers and the organization employees (Schultz Schultz, 1998). The evolving IMC concept IMC has been discussed by both practitioners and academics for approximately a decade before they can reach an accord on what exactly is IMC and how marketers benefit from it. Major agencies and advertisers in the United States in their studies acknowledge IMC as a marketing communication planning concept which is acquainted with the added values of an all-inclusive program that assesses the premeditated functioning of various communication disciplines. The disciplines include public relations, sales promotion, direct responses and general advertising. IMC merges all these disciplines to offer maximum communication impact, consistency and clarity. Schultz and Schultz (1998) conducted a research in 1996 to find out whether the IMC definition was adequate. Their findings indicated that e xecutives from most advertising agencies had nothing to add in this definition. However, other executives quoted that the product message and consumers materialize as the starting points. Others claimed that IMC is more than just a plan and should incorporate quantifying and measurement elements since it emerges as a product-oriented concept. It commences with clients orientation and initiates integrated strategies that other disciplines might endeavour to work against. Initially, organizations concentrated on marketing communication operations and tactics. Such organizations have recently recognized that there must be a more comprehensive and holistic approach to justify their actions to the corporations management and build customer relationships (Belch Belch, 2006). Considering changes in marketing communication management context and how organizations have implemented IMC, a novel definition capturing both the future and current IMC scope have been developed. According to the n ew definition, integrated marketing communication is observed as a strategic business procedure. It can be utilized in planning, developing, executing, and evaluating persuasive, measurable, coordinated brand communiquà © programmes overtime with prospects, clients, consumers as well as other relevant internal and external objectives. The current definition of IMC is distinct from the previous attempts given that its concentration is on business procedures and actions. Since the main target for all businesses is to attract and retain clients, the currently applied IMC concept creates systems that are closed-looped. These enable each communication activity to be properly evaluated, implemented and planned. In fact, IMC is presently being driven or directed by clients’ information. It requires corporations to comprehend clients brand contacts and perceptions, but of great essence is to offer fundamental methodologies unto which all investment decisions can be evaluated and com municated. That is, when compared to the past, IMC currently lays more emphasis on potential and current values of consumers to a corporation by focusing on clients evaluations (Shimp, 2008). The current levels of Integrated Marketing Communication Apparently, integration does not have a single path. Every corporation tends to approach the IMC opportunities and challenges based on the availability of clients’ information, channel dependency and business nature. These must, however, have the support of the management and strategically directed by the corporation. Due to IMC implications, barriers and issues, organizations have adopted a sequential pattern of achieving success in their business endeavors and the main focus is to satisfy clients’ needs. Thus, corporations that are truly integrated are obliged to display competencies in the requirements and activities in all the four phases (Cornelissen Lock, 2000). First phase: Tactical coordination Most corporations ent er into integrated marketing communication system to synchronize varied communication activities across countries, regions, divisions and products. From the fiscal 1980 to 1990s, corporations adopted various techniques and tools in sending messages to business prospects and clients. During these periods, marketing communication as was used in earlier markets constituted mostly of partial options. These included broad-based public relations, outdoor billboards, mass circulation of magazines, major metro newspapers and broadcast advertising. Nevertheless, as most media systems emerged to be more fragmented and specialized, each of them had tailored campaigns directed towards delivering typical messages to the specialised consumers segments (Jackson, 1987). Furthermore, the customarily used marketing communication tools that experienced tremendous growth. Such marketing tools included sponsorships, cooperative ventures, custom publishing, event marketing, sales promotions, direct marke ting, as well as interactive and electronic tools. According to this phase, IMC initially promised to create one sound, one sight through instituting a general organization intended to merge communication forecast. Often, marketing communication was centralized, whereby planning each and every campaign element took place in concerts to help realise enhanced success. Others promoted the development of strong business strategies on tones, usage and instituting business messages whilst leaving the marketing managers to execute the whole plan to help achieve business outcomes (Belch Belch, 2006). The main aim of the adopted IMC strategies was to ensure that all the consumers and clients’ needs are met. Cross functionality is an added hallmark in the first phase of integration. Various corporations have developed different cross-functional approaches to realize advance competencies. This is not only meant to manage personal communication efforts but to similarly achieve dynamism and synergies athwart all the undertaken activities. Beside, marketing divisions in the last twenty years have created cross-functional marketing teams that consist of direct marketing, public relations, communication experts and specialties. The main aim of these teams is to attract and retain the attention of consumers. Such teams create multidimensional communication and media on particular services and products (Kliatchko, 2008). Investing in cross-functional communication expert training is another approach that currently enables departmental market members to have confidence in the most efficient strategies and applications in various communiquà © tools. Marketing agencies have particularly adopted the one sound, one sight promise approach. This is because they have seen integrated marketing communication as an opening for offering greater service menus to the consumers. Basically, key marketing agencies have gone thru a frantic period as they try to purchase particular disci pline associates across the globe and acquire specialty stores in public relations, sales promotion and direct marketing. The aim is to effortlessly service all the consumers’ demands using a broad-based agency umbrella (Hutton, 1996). The approach is actually diverse. Whereas many companies search for agency conglomerates so as to organize and integrate the assorted programmes across the universe, other corporations give preferences to managing the processes of integration themselves. This means that various suppliers and agencies that hardly have direct contacts are used by these corporations that keep the coordination tasks in-house. The second phase: Redefining the marketing communication scope The level of consistency and coordination is hardly enough for most corporations. This obliges them to redefine the marketing communication scope. In reality, corporations are currently attempting to switch to the viewpoints of the end-users, consumers, and clients from the widely embraced corporate operation driven viewpoint. Instead of seeing marketing communiquà ©s as outbound activities sequences that ought to be managed to attain the desired level of efficiency and effectiveness, marketing organizations are currently considering each probable point via which the consumers and clients alike might come in touch with the products or marketed brands. Usually, the product or brands contacts have information that bear clients experience with the product or brand categories. As a result, product brand contact experience is regarded as an aspect that varies from a particular client to next, hence a highly personalized subject (Pickton Broderick, 2005). Whereas the customary brand communication activities are apparently the most essential contacts for product brands, marketers are forced to look for the most effective marketing communication channels that would create an influential contact to challenge the consumers purchasing decisions. The consumers are boun d to be driven by marketing communication functions which either subtract or add substantially to the product brand identity and messages that area communicated via outbound communication actions. As a matter fact, customers do not differentiate marketing messages coming from the accounting, operations and marketing departments. The clients and consumers only observe their complete experiences with a corporation and accordingly form their preferences and perceptions (Duncan Everett, 1993). Thus, it is an essential facet of an integrated marketing communiquà © to realign the communication strategies so as to appear as the clients observe them. Corporations stand a chance of putting their marketing communication programmes under decisive reality checks when they put brand contacts and messages at each point. This assists in shifting the message focus to a clear comprehension of what consumers receive. Besides, it would enable a corporation to understand the manner in which consumers perceive relevant brand messages. Third phase: Application of information technology In the past twenty years, IT has enabled business solutions and drove the marketing communication changes. Organizations through the third phase have been able to harness the emerging technologies potentials and power to improve marketing performances. The application of IT has facilitated the manner in which product marketing messages are delivered to various targets, including business prospects and consumers. Sophisticated mailing systems could be utilized to customize offers and generate personalized messages. Moreover, databases have been used as benchmarks for storing and capturing information related to prospects, consumers and clients (Kliatchko, 2008). Fourth phase: Financial and strategic integration To orient an IMC, the organizations management must play decisive roles, including aligning the organization and allocating resources. From the closed-loop marketing communication system diag ram below, it emerges that two issues are critical. These include the capacity to measure clients’ investments returns and the capacity to utilize integrated marketing communication in driving strategic and organizational resources (Schultz Schultz, 1998). These instigate from the present clients databases directly to indirect or direct measurement of the clients’ behaviours. Figure 1: Closed-loop integrated marketing communication system An example of a successful IMC campaign â€Å"Just Do It†, is one of the integrated marketing campaigns that hard hit the market in the fiscal 1998. This campaign strategy came in when Reebok dominated the sportswear market. In fact, the Just Do It IMC campaign saw Nike Company making sales return amounting to $9.2 billion. The campaign was indeed sweet, short and summarize anything individuals and groups felt they wanted training. An example of an unsuccessful IMC campaign Basically, Wal-Mart Consumer retail stores had one o f the worst IMC campaigns that were deemed very unsuccessful. The IMC campaign, â€Å"The Hub† really failed to draw and attract the attention of consumers and clients alike. Wal-Mart failed because it went and cloned MySpace and whoever the site was called â€Å"Hubsters†. References Belch, GE Belch, MA 2006, Advertising and promotion: An integrated marketing communications perspective, McGraw-Hill, Boston. Cornelissen, JP Lock, AR 2000, â€Å"Theoretical concept or management fashion? Examining the significance of IMC,† Journal of Advertising Research, vol.40 no.5, pp.77-89. Duncan, TR Everett, SS 1993, â€Å"Client perceptions of integrated marketing communications†, Journal of Advertising Research, May/June, 30-9 Fill, C 1999, Marketing communications: contexts, contents and strategies, Prentice Hall, London. Hutton, JH 1996, â€Å"Integrated marketing communication and the evolution of marketing thought,† Journal of Business Research, 37, 1 55-62 Jackson, P 1987, Corporate communications for managers, Pitman, London. Kitchen, P De Pelsmacker, 2004, Integrated marketing communications: A primer, Routledge, New York. Kliatchko, J 2008, â€Å"Revisiting the IMC construct†, International Journal of Advertising, pp.133-160. Pickton, D Broderick, A 2005, Integrated marketing communications, Pearson Education, England. Schultz, DE Schultz, HF 1998, â€Å"Transitioning marketing communication in the twenty-first century†, Journal of Marketing Communication, vol.4, pp.9-26. Shimp, TA 2008, Integrated marketing communications: Advertising and promotion, Thomson South Western, USA.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Using ACE to Improve Communication Results Case Study

Using ACE to Improve Communication Results - Case Study Example I would also issues a direct answer to Q2 and inform the employees that, attending the workshop is very essentials because the management plans to revise the working procedures and those that fail to adhere to the new working conditions might be laid off. The internal website is reliable and covers a wider audience as opposed to using the Memo. The information communication will reach to the employees present and those that are absent. In addition, the information provided is detailed and the employee’s questions and objections are responded to before even they ask them. In essence, the information provided is clear and can be reviewed from time to time, as opposed to using the Memos which are issued once. Even though, most companies may prefer using company’s internal website in communication, it is not a reliable communication channel. Some employees may not get a chance to visit the website. Together with that, those that are not within the company and do not have an access to the internet may not get the information. In addition, in case the websites breaks down, the communication also breaks down and it becomes difficult to reach out to everyone. It is an efficient way of communicating to each employee since the management is aware that every person is aware of the meeting held. The employees prepare in advance and lack an excuse of failing to attend. It is a clear indication that the meeting is vital and intendance is least expected. It is ineffective and one is not quite certain to reach out to all the employees. There is likelihood that the absent employees may not get the information. It is expensive considering that memos are to be printed and issued to all the employees. In connection to that, it is tiresome to address a memo to each and every employee within the company. The information sent via the email is detailed and responds to the possible questions and objections that the employees might have. Also, employees have a chance of asking

Monday, February 3, 2020

Human traficking Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Human traficking - Assignment Example Women and young girls may engage in prostitution in their accord and is mostly not a mandatory involvement(Kligman & Limoncelli, 2005). Another type of human trafficking is immigration purposes where many people wished to join other countries. Countries in Europe like German are prime countries, and many people want to enter the (Kligman & Limoncelli, 2005). Statistics shows that over thousands of people were trafficked to and away ofEastern Europe. Most countries that had less Visa regulation made more people be trafficked into the country because trafficker could freely roam across the countries border. Poverty and low economic level in our society mostly faces women. From a statistic carried out it showed that the number of women being unemployed keeps raising this had pushed women to search for low paying jobs. Most women, therefore, are exploiting new ways of making the ends meet leading them to be victims of human trafficking. Push and pull factors are like gender discrimination where women are discriminated and seen as lesser beings. Pull factors like human trafficking are profitable businesses in many European countries (Kligman & Limoncelli, 2005). There should a complete shutdown of human trafficking in Europe. All underground ready markets for human trafficking are illegal. The United Nations define human trafficking as the process of using threat, deception, fraud or coax people so that they can be recruited and transferred to the individual country. Trafficking is mostly due to the greed of money by traffickers so that they can have people to work as slaves, laborers or slaves in their host country. The humans trafficked are prone to be exploited so that their body organs can be removed and sold or given to an influential person (Kligman & Limoncelli, 2005). In Eastern Europe, socioeconomic factor links to vulnerable people in a number of ways. Vulnerable individuals in societies face challenging life

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Museum of Fine Arts in Houston | Reflection

Museum of Fine Arts in Houston | Reflection Cultural Response This cultural response essay will discuss my trip to the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston. I will be describing my favorite works of art, compare two pieces of art by Do Ho Suh, and then describe my experience at the museum. The first part of the museum that I visited was the Audrey Jones Beck building on level 1. The exhibit was the Antiquities and American Art 1800-1970. I saw art given by Ima Hogg, Jackson Pollock, Severin Roesen, Louis Comfort Tiffany and Christian Edward Bottcher. I have visited the Hogg Plantation and being able to see the furniture and art that was given by Mrs. Hogg from her home was very interesting. The first piece of art that caught my attention was in section 107 of this level. It was called the Victorian Bouquet by the artist Severin Roesen in circa 1850-1855. Roesen was an American artist but was born in Germany in 1815. The media of the artwork is oil on canvas. The Victorian Bouquet features a wide variety of exquisite flowers and fruit. It revives the 17th century Dutch tradition of still-life portraits and paintings. The painting celebrates wealth, life, and aesthetic and physical comfort. It contains roses, poppies, morning glories, peonies, tulips, forget-me-nots, car nations, lilies, irises, peaches, raspberries, pomegranates, and a glass of wine among other things. Roesen provides a feast for the senses. What I love most about this work is how vivid, realistic, and beautiful he made the flowers and contents of the picture. The bright and rich colors chosen in contrast to the black background really create a beautiful scene. The second artwork that I was impressed with was created by Louis Comfort Tiffany, who created the Tiffany lamps. This piece was in the same building but in section 109. He was an American artist and developed Tiffany Studios in 1900. The name of the piece is A Wooden Landscape in Three Panels created around 1905. The medium is glass, copper-foil, and lead. A Wooden Landscape is far more complex than any stained glass windows I have seen, which are usually put together like a puzzle. Usually they are layered together in multiple pieces with glass, one on top of the other. This is just like a painter layered his paint of a canvas. Tiffany used subtle choices of color in this artwork which changes with the variations of light that it has been exposed to. Like a living landscape, this artwork changes in appearance responding to the light surrounding it. The thing that caught my attention about this artwork was the size. Its overall size is 7.2 x 11 feet. Another thing that I liked about this artwork was that it was stained glass. I love stained glass windows and how Tiffany did this was gorgeous. My dad has collected Tiffany lamps and so when I saw this artwork I recognized the styling and technique quickly. The Third portrait I found was in the same building as the other two but in section 113. The artist who created the work was Christian Edward Bottcher. Bottcher was a German artist who lived from 1818 to 1889. The name of the artwork was Summer Night on the Rhine which was created in 1862. The medium of the work was oil paint on canvas. It contained medieval castles, picturesque towns, friends gathered under a beautiful tree, and a vineyard sloping down the side of a hill. The Rhine valley is an extremely romantic scene which was captured perfectly in this artwork where there is an exciting, charming, and nostalgic get-together. Laughter and happiness spill from the canvas and it makes you want to be a part of the celebration. The moonlight sets the perfect shadowing and colors to reflect the mood of the painting. What I found to be charming about this scene is how all 15 or so men are trying to court the women and are giving them flowers. It is almost like an extremely large match-m aker party. Another fun thing about this picture is where the party is taking place. You can quickly tell that they are all from the upper class because of their dress and the castle that they are beside, but the party is under a big tree with a table underneath. A chandelier is tied to a limb of a tree with rope. This is a very exquisite oil painting and I sat and wondered at its detail for a very long while. In the Caroline Wiess Law building, 2nd floor, gallery 200, I found the works of Do Ho Suh, a Korean artist living in America. The first piece I found was called Fallen Star 1/5 which is 131 x 145 x 120 inches. It was created in 2008-2009 and is made up of ABS (plastic), basswood, beech, ceramic, enamel paint, glass, honeycomb board, lacquer paint, latex paint, LED lights, pinewood, plywood, resin, spruce, styrene, polycarbonate sheets and polyvinyl chloride sheets. The second piece of art created by Suh is called Home within a Home which was created in 2009. The dimensions of this piece are 131 x 145 x300 inches. It was created with resin. Do Ho Suh began using nylon and silk to create full size representations of his childhood home in Korea and his first American Apartment, a historical building in Providence, Rhode Island. The translucent quality of these materials creates the blurred line between the past and present, inside and outside. Fallen Star 1/5 is an autobiographical rep resentation of Suhs journey from Korea to the U.S. The artwork shows us a traditional Korean scholars house that has crashed into the building that housed his first American apartment. Each object in the house has been hand made by Suh. He made the house and its contents as realistic as possible to create the effect of being lived in and something the viewer can relate to. Home within a Home is a continuation of the piece Fallen Star. In the earlier work, the two buildings were very much separate entities but in Home within a Home, the Korean house and the apartment building have become a part of the same entity, growing and forming together as one. Suhs artwork is not trying to convey the idea of a violent collision between cultures, but rather about how they coexist together. He said maybe If you start to move things around, maybe the Korean house loses its identity, sort of blends in with the American style-or the other way around. I would love to build a house like this because it raises very interesting questions. Are you in a Korean house or an American house? Thats a constant question to myself (MFAH description of artwork). Both pieces of art symbolize the destroyed Old Korea coming together with the merging New Korea and America. Both pieces of art are easy to compare because of their connection that was created by the artist. Both represent the story and journey of Do Ho Suh. They both show what home means to him and how he puts importance on his culture. The only big difference between the pieces is the materials used and the fact that Fallen Star they are two different houses, and in Home within a Home they are put together and morphing into one house. My favorite out of the two is Fallen Star 1/5 because of how realistic it was. It took him 2 years to create this masterpiece and it is so amazing. I love how each room is made to look lived in and creates this warm, at home atmosphere. On the outside of the building he uses an old style of architect ure that I love and it was put together very intricately. There was a woman who was giving a tour to a middle school group and she described the artwork to them by comparing it to The Wizard of Oz. She did this because of how the Korean home is crashed into the apartment building. I thought this was humorous and helped the children relate more to the painting, Were not in Kansas anymore! The one thing I found interesting about Home within a Home was the material used, resin. Just gazing at the piece, you could see right through it and could see every detail of the staircases, hallways, windows, and the roof of the Korean house while still being very detailed on the outside. Both pieces by Do Ho Suh were very interesting and thought provoking. I would recommend any of my class mates to go see them both as soon as possible. My experience at the Museum was very enjoyable and I hope to go there again very soon. I drove there with my mom which created a good bonding time and made the experience even better for me. When we first entered Houston I was actually confused about which building the Museum was a part of and we ended up in the parking garage of the Houston Museum of Natural Science, oops! Once we figured out where we actually needed to be, the right museum, we walked into the first room and were warmly greeted by the two women up front. I had a small, fun conversation with them both and they were extremely interested in my assignment and asked me about it and what I planned to do. Once they looked over my assignment sheet they informed me that my entrance into the museum would be free of charge. That was extremely nice of them to put that much importance into learning and reward students that way! As my mom and I wandered aimlessly around the building taking in all there was to see, all of the empl oyees greeted us and smiled. I noticed quickly that all of them were from different countries, mostly Asia and one man was even from Africa. While my mom and I walked around, we get turned around and confused as to where we were and every single employee we asked to help us was extremely kind. I have already recommended many of my friends to go visit this museum. The pieces of art I saw were amazing and I love that an establishment like this is as close to me as Houston. This trip was a great experience but unfortunately I did not have the time to stay and see all of the pieces and so I hope to go again very soon.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

The Implementaion of Reverse Policy for Discrimination

Should we be punished for the mistakes of our ancestors? In recent times, Affirmative Action has implemented policies of reverse discrimination to help oppressed minorities gain an advantage over majority groups in college admissions and in employment. The term â€Å"Affirmative Action† was originally used by President John F. Kennedy in 1961 when referring to his executive order that required all federal contractors treat their employees and applicants â€Å"without regard to their race, creed, color or national origin. † In 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson issued Executive Order #11246 at Howard University that required federal contractors to undertake Affirmative Action to increase the number of minorities that they employ. He wanted to ensure that minorities were recruited to have real opportunities to be hired and then eventually get a promotion. In 1969, the Department of Labor exposed widespread racial discrimination of the Construction Department so President Richard M. Nixon decided to incorporate a system of â€Å"goals and timetables† to evaluate federal construction companies according to Affirmative Action. This idea of â€Å"goals and timetables† provided guidelines for companies to follow and comply with Affirmative Action regulations. During the presidency of Gerald R. Ford, he extended Affirmative Action to people with disabilities and Vietnam veterans but there were no goals or timetables for these two groups. This type of Affirmative Action required recruitment efforts, accessibility, accommodation and reviews of physical and mental job qualifications. President Jimmy Carter consolidated all federal agencies that were required by law to follow the Affirmative Action play into the Department of Labor. Before Carter did this, each agency handled Affirmative Action in its own individual way, some were not as consistent as other agencies were. He created the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Program (OFCCP) in 1978 to ensure compliance with the Affirmative Action policies. Affirmative Action began to go downhill when Ronald Reagan and later George Bush came into office. Affirmative Action lost some gains it had made and was more or less ignored by the Republicans in the White House and in Congress. Affirmative Action was silently being â€Å"killed† by our federal administrators. In the Civil Rights Act of 1964, initiated by Kennedy, and the Equal Opportunity Act of 1972, equal opportunity was established. While there was little controversy over equal opportunity, the main issue with Affirmative Action was equal results. Although equal opportunity was established with Kennedy's original executive order in 1961, the statistical results showed that the number of minority workers employed or in certain higher level positions was not in proportion to the surrounding population, making the actual existence of equal opportunity suspect. As a result of this discrepancy, it became necessary to create more aggressive legislation that ensured equal opportunity and equal results. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 required both, and new Affirmative Action programs were instituted to further support this. These programs range from encouraging minorities and women to apply for certain positions to setting up actual numerical goals, such as quota systems and set-aside programs. However, is Affirmative Action, as many critics assert, just passing on the oppression? The basis behind Affirmative Action is that because of past discrimination and oppression, such as the dispossession of Native Americans, the unequal treatment of women, and the enslavement of Black Americans, minorities and women have difficulty competing with their white male counterparts in mainstream American society. But is this true? Why must white males be oppressed by Affirmative Action just because their ancestors enslaved and oppressed another race and gender, and be victims of reverse discrimination in college admissions and employment? The U. S. Supreme Court has faced many cases regarding this controversial issue, including The Regents of the University of California v. Bakke. Bakke, a white medical student, was denied admission to a University of California medical school because of a quota system. Bakke claimed that he was a victim of â€Å"reverse discrimination† and sued. In a close decision, the Court ruled that schools might not enforce a rigid quota system if whites are not allowed to compete equally. The issue was still muddied, however, because in the same decision, the Court ruled that race could be used as a factor. The various regulations and court rulings have made Affirmative Action one of the most paradoxical issues facing America. On one hand, differing local, state, and federal laws require employers to avoid discrimination in up to nine criteria: race, color, sex, age, national origin, sexual preference, handicap, veterans' status and religion. On the other hand, Affirmative Action rules also require certain employers, such as companies with federal contracts, to give preference to racial minorities, women, and others. Consequently, when considering both sides of the issue, it becomes apparent that reverse discrimination and preferential treatment of minorities is absolutely ludicrous when people are preaching equal rights and that â€Å"all men are created equal,† and that Affirmative Action should be outright abolished from all aspects of society as an unnecessary evil in order to ensure an equal playing field for all. Those who wish to retain Affirmative Action regulations argue that America has a moral obligation to right the wrongs of the past – that Blacks and other minorities, whose ancestors have suffered institutionalized discrimination for hundreds of years, have earned preferential treatment. Race-neutral hiring, say proponents, actually discriminates against minorities because the majority of available jobs are not advertised. Rather, they are learned about by word-of-mouth, and minorities are not plugged into the â€Å"old-boy networks† through which they might hear of these jobs. Affirmative Action must be maintained for minorities to rise above the glass ceiling to management positions, and for poor minorities to rise from poverty and unemployment. Affirmative action has been the subject of increasing debate and tension in American society, and through this heated debate, the fight between Angle males and minorities actually sets the two groups apart instead of bringing them together. However, the debate over affirmative action has become ensnared in rhetoric that pits equality of opportunity against the equality of results. The debate has been more emotional than intellectual, and has generated more tension than shed light on the issue. Participants in the debate have over examined the ethical and moral issues that Affirmative Action raises while forgetting to scrutinize the system that has created the need for them. Too often, Affirmative Action is looked upon as the panacea for a nation once ill with, but now cured of, the virulent disease of racial discrimination. Affirmative Action is, and should be seen as, a temporary, partial, and perhaps even flawed remedy for past and continuing discrimination against historically marginalized and disenfranchised groups in American society. Working as it should, it affords groups greater equality of opportunity in a social context marked by substantial inequalities and structural forces that impede a fair assessment of their capabilities. However, its failure highlights the potential for an aura of racism in this country which may perpetuate for many generations on. As Martin Luther King once said, â€Å"I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character. † Affirmative Action would make this dream virtually impossible, bringing race in as a factor in judging college admissions and employment. Those who want to eliminate Affirmative Action regulations argue that preferential programs encourage racial tensions when white students and workers feel they are not getting fair consideration. Why should whites suffer for society's past mistakes? ask Anti-Affirmative Action activists who also note that Affirmative Action programs make whites the victims of reverse discrimination. Affirmative Action works against minorities, the argument continues, because it is assumed that an individual who benefits from such programs is automatically considered inferior to other candidates for jobs or schools, and because the majority who benefit from Affirmative Action are already middle-class, those most in need of the programs, rural and inner-city blacks, have gained nothing. Protestors against Affirmative Action have already taken steps to abolish the abominable doctrine through the passing of Proposition 209 in California. The measure would eliminate Affirmative Action programs used to increase hiring and promotion opportunities for state or local government jobs, where sex, race, and ethnicity are preferential factors in hiring, promotion, training, or recruitment decisions. In addition, the measure would eliminate programs that give preference to women-owned or minority-owned companies on public contracts. Contracts affected by the measure would include contracts for construction projects, purchases of computer equipment, and the hiring of consultants. These prohibitions would not apply to those government agencies that receive money under federal programs that require such Affirmative Action. The elimination of these programs would result in savings to the state and local governments. These savings would occur for two reasons. First, government agencies no longer would incur costs to administer the programs. Second, the prices paid on some government contracts would decrease. This would happen because bidders on contracts no longer would need to show †good faith efforts† to use minority-owned or women-owned subcontractors. Thus, state and local governments would save money to the extent they otherwise would have rejected a low bidder–because the bidder did not make a †good faith effort†Ã¢â‚¬â€œand awarded the contract to a higher bidder. The measure also could affect funding for public schools (kindergarten through grade 12) and community college programs. For instance, the measure could eliminate, or cause fundamental changes to, voluntary desegregation programs run by school districts. (It would not, however, affect court-ordered desegregation programs. ) Examples of desegregation spending that could be affected by the measure include the special funding given to †magnet† schools (in those cases where race or ethnicity are preferential factors in the admission of students to the schools) and designated †racially isolated minority schools† that are located in areas with high proportions of racial or ethnic minorities. Up to $60 million of state and local funds spent each year on voluntary desegregation programs may be affected by the measure. In addition, the measure would affect a variety of public school and community college programs such as counseling, tutoring, outreach, student financial aid, and financial aid to selected school districts in those cases where the programs provide preferences to individuals or schools based on race, sex, ethnicity, or national origin. Funds spent on these programs total at least $15 million each year. Eliminating Affirmative Action programs in America would thus save the government a substantial amount of money and pave the road for truly equal opportunity and treatment of all races. In light of the conflicting arguments for and against Affirmative Action, it is readily apparent that Affirmative Action essentially implements reverse discrimination as an â€Å"acceptable† solution to racial inequality in America, giving preferential treatment to minorities and women, and should thus be forbidden morally and legally if there is to be any sense of â€Å"color-blindness† in race relations in the future. As Daniel Boorstin once said, â€Å"The menace to America today is the emphasis on what separates us rather than what brings us together. † Truly, doing so would further separate embittered races and pit them against each other in heated debate and controversy. Calling for an alternative to Affirmative Action, Randall Kennedy states, â€Å"†We ought to construct a society and set of laws that focus on an individual's character, not color of skin. If Affirmative Action should be banned and society should be â€Å"color-blind,† there should be an alternative to Affirmative Action to ensure this. There are a few possible alternatives to Affirmative Action, some of them are very simple and some are a little more complex. The alternatives include reconstruction of civil society in minority communities, increasing minority and female applicant flow, and most importantly promotion of broad policies for economic opportunity and security that benefit low- and middle-income Americans, both black and white. Building up civil society means strengthening ‘intermediate' institutions, lying between the state and the individual, such as community associations, schools, media, and independent social agencies, which provide the organizational foundation for collective development and effective public representation. † If the same capital was made available for minority institutions as other institutions, they would be able to develop in the society and eventually become a strong part of the minority community. These institutions would give direction and guidance that is needed by all to play a major role in their community. Increasing minority and female applicant flow would be very easy for a company to do. They simply need to include minority colleges and universities in campus recruitment programs, place employment opportunities in minority oriented print and broadcast media, and retain applications of unemployed minority applicants to be reviewed as a position opens. This would be a great opportunity for applicants and employers. We should work toward broad based economic policies by consistently emphasizing broad-based, race-neutral policies; for example, public investment, national health reform, an enlarged earned income tax credit, child support assurance, and other policies benefiting families with young children. Widely supported programs that promote the interests of both lower- and middle-income Americans and that deliver substantial benefits to minorities on the basis of their economic condition will do more to reduce minority poverty than narrowly based, and poorly funded, measures for minority groups or the poor alone. These efforts can also be designed to coincide with intermediate institutions and thereby to contribute to the overall process of civil reconstruction and renewal. Ultimately, if there is to be any sense of racial equality and equal opportunity in this world, we must abolish Affirmative Action and ensure an equal playing field for all races in America.