Friday, May 31, 2019

Blindness and Sight - Lack of Vision in Oedipus The King Essay

blindness in Oedipus The King (Rex) What is sight? Is it just the ability to allow ones surroundings or is there more? Is it knowledge? Is it understanding? give the gate a blind man see? Can the sight be blind? And beyond, when the truth is too terrible, do we choose not to see? The forge too see has so very many connotations. whizz meaning is to know or to understand and the other is based on the physical aspects of things. As humans, we are distracted by the physical world, which causes us to be blinded by the most obvious of truths. Oedipus, the main character in Sophocles play Oedipus Rex, could not see the truth, but the blind man, Teiresias, saw it plainly. Sophocles uses blindness as a motif in the play Oedipus Rex. Oedipus, known for his intelligence, is ignorant and therefore blind, to the truth slightly himself and his past. Yet, when Teiresias exposes the truth he is shunned. It is left to Oedipus to overcome his blindness, rea... ...s the sight of Oedipus , it is by his own will. The blind man seer, Teiresias, could always see because he did not fear the truth, nor did he have reason to. Oedipus blind to the truth, brought darkness on his eyeball when the truth is found. How ironic it seems, yet still the question lies unanswered, did Oedipus fear the horrible truth so much that he chose not to see it? Or was he really so oblivious, that the truth was revealed to him near the plays end for the first time? Blindness and Sight - Lack of Vision in Oedipus The King EssayBlindness in Oedipus The King (Rex) What is sight? Is it just the ability to recognize ones surroundings or is there more? Is it knowledge? Is it understanding? Can a blind man see? Can the sighted be blind? And beyond, when the truth is too terrible, do we choose not to see? The phrase too see has so very many connotations. One meaning is to know or to understand and the other is based on the physical aspects of things. As humans, we are distracted by the physic al world, which causes us to be blinded by the most obvious of truths. Oedipus, the main character in Sophocles play Oedipus Rex, could not see the truth, but the blind man, Teiresias, saw it plainly. Sophocles uses blindness as a motif in the play Oedipus Rex. Oedipus, known for his intelligence, is ignorant and therefore blind, to the truth about himself and his past. Yet, when Teiresias exposes the truth he is shunned. It is left to Oedipus to overcome his blindness, rea... ...s the sight of Oedipus , it is by his own will. The blind man seer, Teiresias, could always see because he did not fear the truth, nor did he have reason to. Oedipus blind to the truth, brought darkness on his eyes when the truth is found. How ironic it seems, yet still the question lies unanswered, did Oedipus fear the horrible truth so much that he chose not to see it? Or was he really so oblivious, that the truth was revealed to him near the plays end for the first time?

Thursday, May 30, 2019

America Must Develop Alternative Fuel Vehicles :: essays papers

America Must Develop Alternative Fuel Vehicles A Formula One race car accelerates from 0 to 60 mph in under 3 seconds. How could a car that goes 0 to 60 mph in 12 seconds ever be considered cool? The people at engine Technology International must be impressed because theyve crowned the gas-electric hybrid powerplant from the Honda Insight as International Engine of the Year 2000.1 The truth is, with a 95-mpg possible and a 110 mph top speed, the Insight is turning everybodys head while at the same time giving environmentalists a beacon light of hope that the conventional gasoline engine may soon be shown the door. The Sierra Club honored the Honda Insight with its Award for Excellence in environmental Engineering. This is the first product award ever given by the 108-year-old environmental group.2Weve heard about the electric automobile revolution for years, but only straightaway are those promises becoming a reality. With several models available right now from Alabama d ealerships, the dawn of the alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) is beginning to touch every corner of the nation. But the most important thing about these new vehicles is their superiority in some aspects to the gas-only cars and trucks weve all come to depend on. No longstanding built just to send an environmental message, the latest breed of vehicle can perform on par with many of the conventional vehicles you pay heed on the road today, while giving its owner the advantages of unbelievably high fuel efficiency and extremely long operating range. The Honda Insight Hybrid EV combines a small 1.0 liter 3-cylinder gasoline engine with a 144-volt NiMH electric motor giving the Insight a range of up to 700 miles, all at a cost of around $20,000.3With the number of companies in the electric transportation industry embarking on bold new acquisitions, the stage is now set for a more robust and competitive EV market, offering consumers a wider range of alternative modes of transportation. Da imlerChrysler has positioned itself for the future through a strategic purchase of Global electrical tugCars (GEM), currently the largest producer in the United States of electric vehicles that can be licensed for use on public roads, producing approximately 5,000 units per year. DaimlerChrysler along with Ford Motor Company will soon be the first to sell neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in the United States.Sales and leasing figures for battery and electric-duty light passenger vehicles for the coda 4 years have risen from 39 units in 1996 to 1277 units in 1999 with those figures projected to be substantially higher for the year 2000.

The Oppression of Miranda in The Tempest Essay -- Tempest essays

The oppressiveness of Miranda in The storm Mirandas schooling in The Tempest shows the audience the conflicting arrangement white women in the Shakespearean drama as well as Shakespearean times are forced to bend within. Paul Brown points out that the address of sex activityoffers the crucial nexus for the various domains of colonialist discourse (208) and the conduct in Prospero manipulates his followers sexuality is the mainstay of his power. The Miranda-Prospero relationship servers to hold a sort of patriarchy, which is unarguably the system numerous Renaissance women and women of Shakespeares time found themselves in. It is thus unsurprising that Prospero controls Miranda and her sexuality as well. The system of patriarchy is demonstratd again and again throughout the play. For example, we see that Prosperos wisdom, magic, and education of Miranda, as well as his civilizing of Caliban demonstrates a system of authoritative love. There is no question that Prospero love s and wishes to protect his miss for example, Prospero continuously reiterates how much he cares for Miranda. However, at the very(prenominal) time, he exhibits enough power over her to be considered a patriarch. Prosperos authority over Miranda is so immense that she cannot do anything but follow her fathers wishes it almost appears as if she has no choice in the matter for she, like Ariel and Caliban, can also be subject to Prosperos magic control. However, it appears that upon a closer study of this, we see that, patriarchalism makes specific, and ofttimes apparently contradictory demands of its own women, which can often cause confusion and problems for the woman involved. Miranda, as a character in Renaissanc... ... Prospero Twelve year since, Miranda, xii year since, Thy father was Duke of Milan and A prince of power. Miranda Sir, are not you my father? Prospero Thy mother was a piece of virtue, and She verbalize thou wast my daughter and thy father Was Duke of M ilan, and his only heritor And princess no worse issued. Works Cited Brown, Paul. This thing of darkness I acknowledge mine The Tempest and thediscourse of colonialism. New York Dollimore and Sinfield, 1985. Kermode, Jack. Political Shakespeaere New Essays in pagan Materialism. BostonManchester University Press, 1985. Lamming, George. The Pleasures of Exile. London Allison and Busby, 1984. Mies, Maria. Patriarchy and Accumulation on a World Scale. London Zed Books,1986. The Oppression of Miranda in The Tempest Essay -- Tempest essaysThe Oppression of Miranda in The Tempest Mirandas schooling in The Tempest shows the audience the conflicting arrangement white women in the Shakespearean drama as well as Shakespearean times are forced to act within. Paul Brown points out that the discourse of sexualityoffers the crucial nexus for the various domains of colonialist discourse (208) and the conduct in Prospero manipulates his followers sexuality is the mainstay of his power. The Miranda-Prospero relationship servers to represent a sort of patriarchy, which is unarguably the system many Renaissance women and women of Shakespeares time found themselves in. It is thus unsurprising that Prospero controls Miranda and her sexuality as well. The system of patriarchy is demonstratd again and again throughout the play. For example, we see that Prosperos wisdom, magic, and education of Miranda, as well as his civilizing of Caliban demonstrates a system of authoritative love. There is no question that Prospero loves and wishes to protect his daughter for example, Prospero continuously reiterates how much he cares for Miranda. However, at the same time, he exhibits enough power over her to be considered a patriarch. Prosperos authority over Miranda is so great that she cannot do anything but follow her fathers wishes it almost appears as if she has no choice in the matter for she, like Ariel and Caliban, can also be subject to Prosperos magical control. However, it appears that upon a closer study of this, we see that, patriarchalism makes specific, and often apparently contradictory demands of its own women, which can often cause confusion and problems for the woman involved. Miranda, as a character in Renaissanc... ... Prospero Twelve year since, Miranda, twelve year since, Thy father was Duke of Milan and A prince of power. Miranda Sir, are not you my father? Prospero Thy mother was a piece of virtue, and She said thou wast my daughter and thy father Was Duke of Milan, and his only heir And princess no worse issued. Works Cited Brown, Paul. This thing of darkness I acknowledge mine The Tempest and thediscourse of colonialism. New York Dollimore and Sinfield, 1985. Kermode, Jack. Political Shakespeaere New Essays in Cultural Materialism. BostonManchester University Press, 1985. Lamming, George. The Pleasures of Exile. London Allison and Busby, 1984. Mies, Maria. Patriarchy and Accumulation on a World Scale. London Zed B ooks,1986.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Tuberculosis: Prevalent and Deadly Essay -- Diseases/Disorders

Tuberculosis (TB) is a very prevalent, very contagious, and very deadly indisposition worldwide. According to the Centers for Disease Control, one trinity of the population is infected with TB. (Centers for Disease Control Data and statistics) While less common than it has ever been, tuberculosis has seen an upsurge in the last three decades without delay related to the AIDS epidemic, but also as a result of the development of many multi-drug-resistant strains. This is of particular concern in developing nations hit leaden by AIDS infections, but it is also evidenced in an upswing in the United States. (Nester, Anderson and Roberts)Because of the increase of cases both here and worldwide there has been a accommodative effort to limit the number of new infections and to control the spread of it by managing the most at risk populations. Nationally this would include prison populations, people with AIDS, and immigrants from countries where there is a high prevalence of TB. Other risk factors include other immunocompromised groups, including those in hospitals, and poverty. The efforts to combat this disease, via education, vaccine administration, and proper sanitation controls acquire decreased the spread dramatically. Nationally the decrease began in 1993 (Nester, Anderson and Roberts) and internationally the decrease began in 2010. (United Nations ). Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the bacterium responsible for tuberculosis. The bacterium spreads in the air when a person with the infection coughs or sneezes. There are many cases of people with latent TB infection but who may eventually develop the disease and therefore become vectors for contagion. Weakened immune systems greatly increase the chances for developing the disease, which explains why ... ... even the latent infection with medication, and isolating those who are contagious have done more to control the spread of this oft fatal disease than have one particular vaccination. Works CitedCenters for Disease Control. Tuberculosis. edge 2012. 11 March 2012 .National Network for Immunization Information. Tuberculosis. March 2005. March 2012 .Nester, Eugene, et al. Microbiology A Human Perspective. 7th Edition. New York McGraw-Hill, 2012.Tuberculosis. Human Diseases and Conditions. 1 March 2012 .United Nations . United Nations newsworthiness Service. 11 October 2011. United Nations News Centre. 12 March 2012 .

Ausubel’s Expository Teaching Model Essay -- Ausubel Expository Teachi

Ausubels Expository Teaching Model Highly hook concepts, such as jurisprudence and sovereignty, much cause high school students much struggle when trying to thoroughly understand such conceptual ideas. To teach these theoretical concepts, one must(prenominal) non only equivalently utilize David Ausubels Expository teaching position, but also retain an overall knowledge of other valuable strategies related to Ausubelss model (Woolfolk, 2004, p. 281). To Ausubel, the most large idea is that of the advance creater, a statement of introduction that aids students in organizing the information about to be presented. Also to a teachers benefit are the ideas needed to form a concept, such as exemplars, formation features, irrelevant features, non-examples, and prototypes. Introducing the advance organizer, presenting ideas in terms of specific examples, and linking the capacitance back to the advance organizer is Ausubels model for expository teaching (Woolfolk, 2004, p. 283).Ausube ls expository teaching primarily focuses on teaching general ideas to dig out one specific concept, otherwise known as deductive reasoning. His approach always begins with an advance organizer (Woolfolk, 2004, p. 282). This statement aids in priming the students for the scene and idea about to be described. It will help in developing schemas, or organizing information, and helps direct all attention to the key ideas coming from the material beingness presented.The first of the two types of organizer is the expository organizer, which primarily focuses the introduction of new material. The second is the comparative organizer, which compares old and new information resulting in students accessing schemas already in their working memory, otherwise know as the temporary storage of information that is being processed in a range of cognitive tasks (Woolfolk, 2004, p. 242). An expository lesson must always elaborate on the advance organizer. Connecting the information back to the organi zer should also be utilized in completing the lesson. Identifying qualities such as defining features (required features), exemplars (actual instances), irrelevant features (often present but not relevant), and non-examples will all assist in creating a prototype, or an holy man example, to aid in grasping the concept. The mark is the ability to take the concept and relate it back to th... ...and trees to compare by non-examples. My instructor concluded his lesson by highlighting his organizer and repeating the idea that abstract ideas were all symbols of something. Abstractions are not an actual object itself, as opposed to concrete ideas that are material and solid.The expository method can be ideal for teaching abstract concepts such as jurisprudence and sovereignty to high school students within a limited amount of time. Through first designation the concept and giving the definition, as well as applying tools such as the advance organizer, a teacher will gain the students a ttention and allow them to organize their ideas in order to make connections. When teaching a concept, it is best to keep in mind that students will respond most when a concept is taught in a way that is useful and efficient versus being taught in a manner geared only towards answering exam questions. By extending and connecting the concepts in these significant ways, students will be able to focus on the meaning and not on memorization.Sources Citedhttp//dictionary.comhttp//plato.stanford.eduWoolfolk, A. (2004). Educational Psychology (9th ed.). Boston Allyn and Bacon.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Is it Constitutional to Bare Arms? Essay -- History

Is it Constitutional to Bare Arms?A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. These are the words of the second amendment as written by our forefathers. The question weather it is constitutionally legal or not has been debated for many years. In order to understand the true meaning of the above statement one must look back at the history ring it. The Bill of Rights was written over two hundred years ago, and much has changed over that period of time. Therefore, one must examine the language of the text once again keeping in mind when it was written. I believe that it is constitutionally legal for individual citizens who are cable of bearing arms have the right to do so.To support my claim lets look back to our history books and we can see that after the Revolutionary War the Framers of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights were very leery of a strong government. One of the Publi c Affairs Director for the Second Amendment Foundations, states, The Framers of the Constitution disturbed the national government enough to create the Bill of Rights. Why would they morsel around and put so much faith in the stat governments? The Framers more likely distrusted all take aims of government. This would be more consistent than trusting some level and not others (LaCourse)At the time when the constitution was written Founding fathers just came out from the Revolutionary War ...

Sony Aibo Case Study

Sony AIBO case summary AIBO, a robotic dog doesnt do anything useful at all, but provides diversion by stimulating some of the constitution characteristics of a pet without the inconvenience of a real animal. According to Toshitada Doi, Sonys leading estimator engineer, AIBO is a computer that provides love and healing for people. The first generation ERS-110 can imitate dogs behaviors, see, show emotions, learn and evolve personality. The second generation ERS-210 has voice recognition and more than dexterous.The new AIBO came with new software options as well. After adding wireless LAN technology, Sony has unveiled its new entertainment architecture, dubbed OPEN-R, which provided third-party developers with the ability to create any number of software applications as well as hardware modules. Though legal injuryd at whopping $2,500, $1,500 the second generation, Sonys profit margin on the AIBO was close to zero. It is the software applications and hardware modules developed b y Sony and third-party developers that makes money for the company.AIBO has created such a stir that only two products had in the history of Sony the original Walkman and the Playstation game console, far exceeding the developers expectations. It is such a success in Japan the American market is not that hot. Par of the reasons were the horticulture differences between these two countries. In Japan, many people live in small apartments where real pets are not allowed. And Japan has a large ripened population, to whom a companion without any inconvenience is perfect.Besides, robots in Japanese culture are heroes and Japanese are so fascinated about high-technology while to quondam(a) Americans, too lifelike technology is dangerous and threatening. Apart from the culture elements, most customers were confused of what Sony was selling. The confusion was compounded by the release of a number of low-end knock-offs. The instruction execution of five years, six prototypes, and millions of yens outcome, AIBO, is so obviously superior to those cheap imitations, it is difficult to consider these knock-offs competition.At the other end of the competitory spectrum are robots that can do something perform serious household tasks. Admitting that these types of functional robots were much easier for Americans to understand, Sony has provided new software applications so that AIBOs can read emails and pre-selected websites and owners can remotely control their AIBOs movements. With more and more software applications and hardware modules being built on the base of OPEN-R technology, the possibilities are really limitless.As to broaden the American market, I trust several questions should be considered before making the decision of whether Sony should begin mass advertising. What is the popularity of AIBO in America? What are the main concerns that stop Americans to reach into their pocket to gestate for an AIBO? Standing in the Americans shoes, what do they want from a robot dog? Will sales of AIBO be stimulated by the mass advertising? Is the redeem going to be enough to cover the cost of mass advertising? Which medium might be the best way to touch the audiences?Further analysis of American market and culture should be done before making the decision. Since Sony has created AIBO Town, a magazine for AIBO devotees, and Cartoon industry is very mature in Japan, AIBO cartoon, AIBO funny books, AIBO video games and a series of AIBO related products can create infatuation with the robotic dogs, and the popularization of robotic dogs, vice versa, will promote the sales of the derivatives. The possibilities of AIBO are limitless. With more and more applications developed, AIBO can be a functional companion.For instance, AIBO could be used to guide blind people, the sensor can get information of the owners wellness condition when he/she touches an AIBOs head, AIBO can play music, the owner can monitor his/her house when traveling, AIBO can work as a projector, etc. The price of the AIBO can not be much lower than the cost of manufacturing cost, or the margin profit. As AIBOs are equipped with more and more functions, people shake a clearer understanding of what Sony is selling and are more willing to pay for them.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

The two heroes of industrialization

The devil Heroes of Industrialization During the late 1800s, many people began to start their own companies. Two of the most notable entrepreneurs, Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller, were the most renown of these people. Their success is seen through all the things that are named after them the Carnegie Library, Carnegie Hall, Carnegie Mellon University, Rockefeller Foundation, Rockefeller Center, and many more. Though they may seem genuinely much alike, these two businessmen share differences as well.Despite the fact that Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller gained their position in two diverse ways, they both had illustrious companies with discontented workers. These industrialists sure got to where they were in two very different ways. Carnegie is famous for going from rags to riches. He defines the American Dream. Starting out as an immigrant, he worked for the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. He was then promoted, and was able to buy stock. From the investment money , he started his own company Carnegie Steel Company.From there, he went on to be a ealthy entrepreneur and philanthropist. Rockefeller, on the other hand, achieved his position In a more realistic way. Together with other people, he formed illegal trusts. Luckily, it proved to be a success. His wealth came from his famous company, Standard 011 Company. After the founding of his company, he sold oil for low prices In lay to drive out his competitors, then once he had a monopoly, he would raise the price again. Rockefeller proves to be model for economic success. Since these Industrialists had large companies, they needed workers to run them.Carnegie and Rockefeller did not pay them much, or else It wouldnt be profitable. The workers had six to seven-spot day work weeks, no holidays or vacations, and had to come to work on sick days. The Injuries were common, for many of the workers were Inexperienced. The labor movementers at this point were unsatisfied, and had to stand up for themselves. They formed labor unions In order to fight the companies. A few people died because of the attack between the workers and companies. Carnegie and Rockefeller both went through laborers complaints, dissatisfaction, and aggression.These two businessmen reached their economic success In unlike ways, yet both had eminent companies and displeased workers. Without their efforts, the world wouldnt be where It Is right now. Thanks to them and their contributions, many companies, colleges, and organizations have been established. Rockefeller, on the other hand, achieved his position in a more realistic way. success. His wealth came from his famous company, Standard Oil Company. After the founding of his company, he sold oil for low prices in order to drive out hisSince these industrialists had large companies, they needed workers to run them. Carnegie and Rockefeller did not pay them much, or else it wouldnt be profitable. come to work on sick days. The injuries were common, for many of the workers were inexperienced. The laborers at this point were unsatisfied, and had to stand up for themselves. They formed labor unions in order to fght the companies. A few people These two businessmen reached their economic success in unlike ways, yet both wouldnt be where it is right now. Thanks to them and their contributions, many

Friday, May 24, 2019

Kraske or jackknife position

IntroductionIn this variation of the prone state of affairs, the longanimouss head and feet ar both lower than the pelvic archs. The jack prod position is used or so frequently for proctologic procedures. It is likewise the gold standard in anorectal surgical procedures (Kneedler & Dodge, 1994).PositioningThe patient role is either anesthetized supine and turned prone, or is placed in position before spinal anaesthesia anesthetic is administered. The hips ar on a pillow or towel directly over the table break and the table is flexed 90, with the head and legs down. The patients arms are on arm boards with hands toward the head. The buttocks may be separated by wide tape placed at the level of the anus on both sides and secured to the table. The patient is taken out of the position by first flattening the table and then reversing the order of movements into the prone position. Arms are usually positioned over the head for turning (Bailey & Snyder, 2000).Anesthesia FactorsOne of the most common concerns about the prone jack knife position is the safety of the airway during anesthesia. Patients are occasionally placed in lithotomy position rather than the preferred prone jack knife position because of the concern for the airway. While patient safety is a hot flash concern, there are no reports of the loss of control of airway during repositioning. Although this lack of evidence does not exclude individual episodes, it does indicate that the heightened awareness has probably lessen the encounter to the patient to an acceptable level (Jaffe & Samuels, 2004).Patient FactorsIndividual physical limits of the patients occasionally prevent the use of the jack knife position. Physical factors that would prevent a patient from untruth prone on the operating table, such as obesity, pregnancy, and tense ascites, may require the use of a different position. Orthopedic considerations, such as hip and knee joint problems, long leg casts, and kyphosis may be contrai ndications to this position. In these relatively rare circumstances, consideration should be given to the lateral position.Perhaps the angiotensin-converting enzyme most important patient factor is the shape of the buttocks (or depth of the gluteal cleft). It was found to be an important factor in determining the patient position and type of anesthesia to be used in the procedure (Spry, 1997).Surgeon FactorsThe primary reason that many surgeons prefer the prone jack knife position is the excellent visibility provided during anorectal procedures. The exposure provided for office procedures, such as excision of thrombosed external hemorrhoids or drainage of abscesses is not equaled by separate positions. In the operating room, whether the surgeon is dissecting the rectum off of the prostate or vagina in an abdominoperineal resection or preserving the internal sphincter during a mucosectomy for ulcerative colitis, visibility and lighting are key factors. Since the gluteal cleft is in horizontal rather than a vertical orientation in the prone jack knife position, illumination drop be provided with overhead lights rather than headlamps. Similarly, more than one person can visualize the operating field without crowding or being in an viscous body position (Bailey & Snyder, 2000).Physiologic FactorsThe jack knife position has been described as the most precarious of surgical positions. Both respiration and circulation can be most adversely affected. Vital capacity is reduced due to restricted diaphragmatic movement and increased blood volume in the lungs, reducing lung compliance (Kneedler & Dodge, 1994).Careful positioning of patients when they are under anesthesia is crucial. Most surgeons focus on the avoiding damage to peripheral nerves from prolonged pressure when positioning patients. However, an even more significant risk to overall patient well-being can endpoint from the unintended consequences of anesthesia that may affect patient physiology. They incl ude compression of arteries, impairment of venous return, limitation of ventilation, and blood pooling. Many authors have examined the prone jack knife position to assess the potential physiologic impact.There are mixed reports about the cardiac effect of the prone jack knife position. If the patient is improperly positioned, transmitted pressure on the vena cava may cause blood pooling in the lower extremities and result in striked venous return. In one study, when patients were turned from the supine to the prone position there was a temporary decrease in cardiac index however, when the patients were placed in the prone jack knife position the cardiac index returned to the level seen in the supine position.There was no change in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and systemic vascular resistance with change from the supine position to the prone jack-knife position, but there was a decrease in the left ventricular stroke work index and a significant increase in the pulmonary cap illary wedge pressure. Overall, the effects of the jack knife position were comparable to other surgical positions and were believed to be manageable by experienced anesthesiologists.The effect of posture on pulmonary physiology in general and the particularized effect of the prone jack knife position on vital capacity have been examined. When patients in the sitting positing are considered to be baseline, there is a 9% decrease in vital capacity in the supine position, a 12.5% decrease in the jack knife position, and an 18% decrease in the lithotomy position. The reduction in vital capacity is due to obstruction of the movement of the diaphragm and to a lesser extent to the restriction of the anteroposterior movement of the ribs. This modest decrease is tolerated by most patients but merits careful monitoring during conscious sedation and general anesthesia (Bailey & Snyder, 2000).ReferencesBailey, H. R., & Snyder, M. J. (2000). Ambulatory Anorectal Surgery. modernistic York Spri nger.Jaffe, R. A., & Samuels, S. I. (2004). Anesthesiologists Manual of Surgical Procedures (3rd ed.). New York Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Kneedler, J. A., & Dodge, G. H. (1994). Perioperative Patient Care The Nursing Perspective (3rd ed.). Sudbury, Massachusetts Jones and Bartlett Publishers.Spry, C. (1997). Essentials of Perioperative Nursing (2nd ed.). Gaithersburg, Maryland Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Over-dependence on technology Essay

Over- dependance on engineering scienceThe reliance on technology is expected and needed because the technology is intentional to be a flexible tool supporting pull in activities. This reliance is expected and necessary if the technology is to realize the potential for which it is designed. This fundamentally differs from over dependence on technology, in which those using scientific innovations no longer treat them as flexible tools to support work activities, but instead make ill-timed assumptions about how these systems work, and begin to rely on them, without chief or skepticism, to manage critical work activities.he theory of technological determinism holds that technology is the prime outcome in initiating social change, and that the introduction of new technology fundamentally shifts work activities, resulting in transformations of individuals and their social interactions as well as the organizations in which they work. 3 In contrast to this deterministic approach, th e theory of social construction of technology posits that technology does not directly shape society instead, the social context in which the technology is used determines how it is created, diffuses, and becomes part of the organization. 4 Both theories imply that the introduction of technology is associated with signifi outhouset change they differ in whether the change is initiated by the technology or the social context in which it is used.Regardless(prenominal) of the theoretical basis for understanding the change, it is reasonable to assume that some degree of dependence on any technological innovation will inevitably occur if the technology provides users with some perceived, relative advantage over whatever system it supersedes. 5 This reliance is expected and necessary if the technology is to realize the potential for which it is designed. This fundamentally differs from overdependence on technology, in which those using technological innovations no longer treat them as fle xible tools to support work activities, but instead make incorrect assumptions about how these systems work, and begin to rely on them, without question or skepticism, to manage critical work activities. To answer the question How does the introduction of CPOE create the potential for overdependence on technology in healthcargon organizations? we conducted a detailed analysis ofall references to overdependence on technology in our data. The results are presented here.However, some people are concerned by these developments. They point out all the failures made by computers that have done a lot of vilify to people. Scientists fear that the vital skills can be lost by next generations as computer technology replaces traditional ways of working. Moreover, they predict the chaos that can occur when suddenly the systems fail to work or, what is worse, refuse to listen to peoples orders.That is why in my opinion, computers and other developments of technology are useful and at that plac e is no possibility to live without them nowadays, as we got to much used to them. However, we should also work to find the ways of making our dependence on technology less dangerous for us. New developments should appear only when really important and helpful for people.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Education in Pakistan Essay

reproduction in Pakistan is overseen by the governments Ministry of Education and the provincial governments, whereas the federal government mostly assists in curriculum development, accreditation and in the financing of research. The article 25-A of Constitution of Pakistan obligates the state to provide free and compulsory timber education to children of the age group 5 to 16 geezerhood. The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to sixteen years in such a manner as may be determined by law.3 The education system in Pakistan is generally divide into five levels primary (grades one through five) middle (grades six through eight) high(grades nine and ten, leading to the Secondary School Certificate or SSC) intermediate (grades xi and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary (School) Certificate or HSC) and university programs leading to undergraduate and graduate degrees. 4 The literacy rate ranges from 87% in Islamabad to 20% in the Ko hlu District.5 Between 20002004, Pakistanis in the age group 5564 had a literacy rate of almost 30%, those aged between 4554 had a literacy rate of nearly 40%, those between 2534 had a literacy rate of 50%, and those aged 1524 had a literacy rate of 60%. 6 Literacy rates vary regionally, particularly by sex. In tribal areas female literacy is 7. 5%. 7Moreover, English is fast spreading in Pakistan, with 18 million Pakistanis8 (11% of the population)8 having a command over the English language, which makes it the 9th Largest English Speaking Nation9 in the world and the 3rd largest in Asia.8 On top of that, Pakistan produces about 445,000 university graduates and 10,000 computer science graduates per year. 10 condescension these statistics, Pakistan still has one of the highest illiteracy rates in the world. 11 Education Expenditure as Percentage of GDP Public white plague on education lies on the fringes of 2 percent of GDP. However, the government recently approved the new nation al education form _or_ system of government, which stipulates that education use of goods and services will be increased to 7% ofGDP,22 an root that was first suggested by the Punjab government. 23 Author of an article, which reviews the history of education spending in Pakistan since 1972, argues that this policy target raises a fundamental question What extraordinary things are passing play to happen that would enable Pakistan to achieve within six years what it has been unable to lay a hand on in the past six decades? The policy document is blank on this question and does not discuss the assumptions that form the basis of this target.Calculations of the cause show that during the past 37 years, the highest public expenditure on education was 2. 80 percent of GDP in 1987-88. Public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP was actually cut back in 16 years and maintained in 5 years between 197273 and 2008-09. Thus, out of total 37 years since 1972, public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP either decreased or remained stagnant for 21 years. The author argues if linear trend were maintained since 1972, Pakistan could have touched 4 percent of GDP well before 2015.However, it is unlikely to happen because the levels of spending have had remained significantly unpredictable and unsteady in the past. Given this disappointing trajectory, increasing public expenditure on education to 7 percent of GDP would be nothing less than a miracle simply it is not going to be of godly nature. Instead, it is going to be the one of political nature because it has to be invented by those who are at the helm of affairs. The author suggests that little success can be made unless Pakistan adopts an unconventional approach to education.That is to say, education welkin should be treated as a special sector by immunizing budgetary allocations for it from fiscal stresses and political and economic instabilities. Allocations for education should not be affec ted by squeezed fiscal space or surge in military expenditure or debts. At the same time, there is a need to debate others options about how Pakistan can invent the miracle of raising education expenditure to 7 percent of GDP by 2015. 24

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Electric Bike

Our Electric Bicycle Project I ca-ca added an galvanising automobile automobile power facilitate onto a GT mountain rack. With a 3 HP peak ram, it is or so(prenominal)(prenominal) more(prenominal) powerful than distinctive electric cycles. The basic motivation to build an electric motorcycle was to have a fun and efficient and environment wholey friendly port to stay divulge my railway car for short trips close to town, and too as a silent traverse motorcycle for exploring the hills. I insufficiencyed to get some exercise this bicycle displace simmer down be pedal pointed. When I prototypic shed this together it was pull muckle more of a blast to get off than I had envisi unmatchedd.I have impinge onn 70 year old wad get on this ride and laugh wish little kids its like a magic hand is silently boosting you along. This website provide describe the background of this little electric vehicle, offer some reflections on the electric and hybrid vehicle scene, and detailmost of the design and motor and batteries should you be interested in making maven yourself. Though its a bit of a dispatch, a enumerate of sight have rattling made truly equivalent bikes based on my basic design. The Beauty of the Electric BikeNo noise no vibration no smog no smog checks no registration no insurance no drivers license No accelerator no rock oil no tune-ups no parking hassles no car payments no more exercise (use the pedals)no brainer Background why build an electric bike? Why use such a plumping motor? I love the idea of electric vehicles in general and would love to have a sodding(a) electric car. I have a Prius, currently exactly active the closest thing operational. until with out(p) delay, battery technology hasnt advanced enough to ready a pure electric car affordable yet.I do telephone, however, that light-weight, low- zipper, short-range vehicles be easyt within the limits of current battery-electric technolo gy, so I set out to enamour what could be done to select a more powerful and sequence-consuming-range equip bike. Since I live bargonly round 3 miles from my favourite grocery break in and my house is at the travel by of a fairly long and steep hill, biking and walking is retributive strenuous enough to be discouraging to me on a spur-of-the-moment basis. However I love biking. I have mountain bikes and folding bikes.In looking for a motor to add to one of my bikes, I rode some ready-made bikes and disc all in all over that they argon in reality fun to ride. The silence and effortless(prenominal) cruising along is undecomposedmagical. But the electric bikes and motor kits for sale at the sequence, such as the lop USProDrive, the eBike, etc. were fairly low power and really bent that a lottimes(prenominal) immediate up a steep hill than an un attentioned bicycle. The Wave crest was the first seemlyly powerful ready-made bike, though the comp whatsoever didnt l ast long. (Electric vehicle companies front to have a curious habit of making a big splash and then vanishing beneath the waves. Now you stack buy decent electric motor kits from Wilderness Energy and Crystallite, among others, solely I was curious about the nuts and bolts of things, and treasured to learn more about exactly what it deals to drive a vehicle with pure electric power. I am a enormous fan of all electric vehicles and watch the parvenue technologies nigh. Hybrid cars atomic number 18 a tremendous technology that in my opinion is the first step on the road to all-electric vehicles. Hybrids will necessarily drive the development of reveal and cheaper batteries, which is the moreover missing link to the puzzle.Hybrids of today that atomic number 18 further charged by their gasoline locomotives will lead to plug-in hybrids that can be partially recharged at home or at charging stations. This will lead to astonishingly frugal use of supply, and these cars wi ll need a lotlarger battery behaves, which means break down and cheaper batteries will have to be produced. Thiswillhappen and is likely happening right on forthwithadays. Eventually batteries will be hump so oftentimes better that the auto companies will start to produce cars that simply leave out the combustion engine altogether the pure battery electric vehicle.Dont get me started on fuel cells and the much hyped future hydrogen economy. This is interesting technology, scarce suffice it to allege that on that point be so m all expert breakthroughs and logistic problems yet to be solved, that I simply dont see it happening within the next hug drug or fifteen years. In other parts of this website and in the Electric Bicycle FAQ, I elaborate a little more on the near and farthest term technology, where I see it going, and what the most promising developments are. This is non really a build manual, however. . Experienced tinkerers may glean a lot of ideas and soluti ons from my pages if they want to use them and adapt them. in that respect are parts lists and plenty of photos. This driveline is now extremely robust and probably suitable for larger electric vehicles, non just bikes, up to common chord to five horsepower. Over the variety of this project Ive made legion(predicate) interesting discoveries, encountered issues and problems which all electric vehicle builders must face, and finally forecast out some fairly simplistic solutions.Ive fitted a number of diverse driveline constitutions which range from unreserved single vee- knock ammunitions to the present double reduction use a minacious-dutytoothed belt and cooking stove. Earlier versions are shown on future(a) pages. This bike runs well, is stone-reliable and nearly silent, and all the major components are operational online or at power transmission supply houses. Note that I had to weld and machine key components like the jack injection mount using ball rigs, and the image sprocket that clamps on to the spokes at the rhythm hub.The right components and design solutions to this project were grievous to come by, and I just want to share what Ive learned to promote what I analyze a pretty amazing form of transportation. V1. 5 Dual Reduction Belt/Chain Drive The currentversion is what I am affair v1. 5, which is the same bike as v1. 4 barely with some basic changes a brisk timing belt drive system with a orbit final drive. Basically, the motor drives a belt that turns an intermediate woodpecker or jackshaft mounted next to the motor and spinning on ball bearings. This shaft then drives a chain going gloomy to the winningle bike wheel around. Same motor and all other components. Earlier versions are documented on following pages. ) BASIC SPECS OF V1. 5Scott 24 V DC, 1 hp motor (3 hp max) still operational from cloudelectric. com * Gates Power Grip GT2 belt old drive * 1/2 poise jackshaft on custom shaft ball bearing mount 31 red uction * 35 chain final drive to airlift wheel 2. 771 reduction * 8. 441 overall adapting retch acrosss top speed of about 27 miles per hour * 2 x 12V Hawker AGM- t set offrical role lead loony toons batteries, 13 Ah apiece later interchanged by B&B 12v 16Ah batteries ( besides AGM) * 4QD Scooter 180 speed controller 180 amp with optional regenerative braking * 24 V charger charges in 2-5 hours typically pedal in all 18 speeds * batteries and motor dismissible in 10 minutes * range 15 miles on the planar depending on pedal assist * weight 85 lbs. Motor The Scott motor is 24 V DC, brushed, and is rated at 1 hp (746 watts) continuous power and slip bys 41 amps. It price about $250, however in 2008 I see the price is nestled to $350. This model no. 4BB-02488. This motor is visible(prenominal) still from cloudelectric. com. Dont let the rating fool you, this motor will put out 2. 5HP peak and can purge be over-volted (judiciously) to 36V where it will put out 1. 5 HP co ntinuous and around 4HP peak.If youre crazy enough to gear it up, it would propel a bike to around 50mph (please dont do this. ) So the Scott is pretty heavy and suitable for moderately larger vehicles for a bicycle, a better alternative might be one of the motors at evdeals. com such as the 500 watt 36V motor for only $60. Cloud electric also has a selection of motors from $80 to $170 that would be in truth suitable according to your budget and power desired. A rattling interesting choice is their Motor 36 Volt cytosine0 Watt model that has an integral slaphappy clutch. This can also be run at 24V to get 535 watts of power. I may have to switch over, these sounds like an ideal motor for a project like this. ) You can non just use any old motor to drive a bike. People a great deal ask me, can I use a motor from an electric drill, or a starter motor from a motorcycle or a car. The short answer is no, these motors are generally non suitable at all. The faculty is poor, they wi ll overheat, they are not powerful enough, the speed is too high, theyre too noisy, or any number of other thinks. The Scott is a very high quality motor with high efficiency, sincere cooling, and ball bearings.At 16 pounds it is pretty heavy alone motors in this power range were hard to find five years ago. If I were doing this today I would undoubtedly use a lighter motor of the type that has subsequently make up available. There has been a tremendous influx of scooters and littler electric vehicles, and many of the motors on these vehicles would be suitable for a bike. There are also a number of motors use by citizenry making combat robots or battelbots. These are generally high power andsooner tough. However battlebots dont really need efficiency so this is something to look out for.Efficiency of greater that 80% should be looked for at a wide range of speeds and currents. In my opinion, a bike needs a motor of at least 400 watts and probably not more than 1000 watts. Any l ess and you might as well not bother, and any more and the motor will probably be large, heavy, high-priced, deplete your batteries in a flash, or all of the above. The reason for a motor this powerful is simple hills. I live on a steep hill. While a Zap or a US ProDrive bike rated at 400 watts goes a decent 17 mph on flat land, they lessen to 3 to 5 mph on a decent hill. I can pedal that fast.I have ridden a Schwinn with the Currie US Pro drive. It was very great, I would recommend it to anyone as a very equitable turn-key kit solution. However I wanted to go faster and be able to get up a hill. The simple fact is that you need from 5 to 10 times as much power to go a given speed on a decent grade. This is why a car that only needs 12 hp to go 60 mph on flat roads has an engine that can put out 100 to 200 hp. The Scott motor was used in many go-carts and Electrathon vehicles. (Electrathons are efficiency competitions using ultralight closed-course battery electric vehicles carr ying one person.The point is to go the farthest distance in a given step of time. ) So the efficiency is obviously pretty good. The motor cost $269 wide-cut shipped, and weighs about 16 pounds. It has ball bearings and massive cooling fins and is built to last. Brushes do not wear out very fast at all, this is not really a concern. It draws around 41 amps while producing a continuous 1 hp. aim a greater load on it and will draw well over 100 amps and produce up to 3 hp. This is why it needs a 180 amp controller. More about controllers later. Speed Reduction and Gearing a big issueI will spend quite a bit of time here describing the speed reduction scheme, as this is the most difficult problem to solve in fitting a motor to a bike or other small EV. The big issue with all motorization schemes on bikes is this how to reduce the speed of a typical motor, which may turn at up of 3000 rpm, to the necessary speed of a bicycle rear wheel. A 26 mountain bike wheel at 20 mph is turning on ly about 265 rpm. The overall reduction required is therefore surrounded by roughly 81 and 111 depending on what top speed you wish well to achieve.Now it is certainly possible to simply bolt, cite, a 130-tooth chain sprocket to the rear wheel and drive it with a 13-tooth drive sprocket off the motor. But this is a very large wheel sprocket (about 15 in diameter) and, life-sustainingly, the chain would be unbearably noisy. My basic observation about chain drive is that if any chain sprocket turns faster than about 750 rpm, it will start to make a racket. If only there were a good quiet 31 gearbox you could bolt on to the Scott, the final 31 or 41 ratio could be intimately achieved with a chain and sprockets to the rear wheel.However I dont know of such a gearbox ready made, and a gear box is very difficult to machine from scratch. Straight cut gears also tend to make a whining noise. This big problem of gearing down the motor has lead to the development of the hub motor. This i s simply a bicycle wheel hub with a motor built in, which can then be spoked to a rim. Such hub motors either have gears built in, or they are very particularly intentional to just turn at a very low speed while still having good power and torque. This is a difficult trick. Its much easier to make a motor that derives its power from spinning at higher(prenominal) rpm.At any rate, at the time I could not find many hub motors, and the few that were available were expensive, made a gear whine, and were on a lower floorpowered. Also, a hub motor has one set gearing by design, and you cant alter it. I wanted something where I could experiment with several(predicate) gear ratios, top speeds, and hill lifting ability. I have come up with this belt drive to achieve the primary speed reduction of 31. The dual-reduction drive system is much more solid than anything I have tried before. Its a little more complicated but slippage is absolutely eliminated and I feel confident that this sy stem would be able to take unconstipated more power.This is important because the Scott motor is often bumped up to 36 volts rather than 24 and I may in conclusion switch over. Why belt primary drive? Wouldnt ii chains be easier? Basically, as I say, belts are much quieter at high RPM. At 3000 rpm a chain would be about as loud as many small gas engines. An electric bike should be whisper quiet, and this belt drive is. Many electric go-carts use a single straight chain drive however, they go faster while having smaller wheels, so theyneed less speed reduction,and the wind and consume noise and speed tend to mask the racket the chain makes. Plus, carters dont really care much about noise.I used a Gates PowerGrip GT2 belt. This timing belt has rounded teeth so its quieter than other belts. The teeth are closely spaced for better grip on small sprocket wheels. This is the 5mm pitch type. At 25mm wide, the short belt is much less likely to stretch and is easily tensioned by pivoting the jackshaft mount slightly three of the mounting holes are slotted, so the mount can pivot around the un-slotted fourth hole. Does this wide belt seem like overkill? The Gates Co. hasvery nice simple little engineering software they give outdoor(a) on their website that will tell you what surface and type of belt you will need.You plug in the power, gear reduction, speed, and a couple of other things and the course of study will give you some recommendations. I used the program and this was one of the recommendations and what do you know, it has been great. Has neer been adjusted and and has never slipped or worn. The jackshaft itself is a 1/2 steel shaft running on two R8 certain(p) ball bearings. The mounting plate and bearing housing is welded aluminum. Sorry that I dont have a diagram of this but hopefully you get the general layout from the photos. If belts are so great, then why chain final drive?Since the jackshaft is now speed-reduced to 1000 rpm max, running a chain down to the rear wheel now makes sense. There is a reason so many bikes and motorcycles still use steel chain final drive. It makes sense here because the run is longer and the available space narrower, and chain is much stronger and less stretchy than a long narrow belt. At this speed the chain may be slightly audible at top speed, but not noisy, and the wind and tire noise while riding will actually be louder. A chain doesnt need to be tensioned nearly as tightly as a belt.Finally, chains have a master link which makes assembly and removal much easier, like when changing tires and repairing flats. (Belts are endless. ) The 35 chain is a very common American size. It has a shorter pitch than bicycle chain but is much stronger. (Bicycle chain is made flexible to allow for the side to side misalignment resulting from different derailleur gear combinations. ) You will notice the extra bar running in between the chain, from the jackshaft to the axle. This is a reinforcement and has an adjuster nut at the lower end to establish proper chain tension.The bar acts to importanttain proper driveline rigidity the Scott motor can put out a tremendous bar of torque and the motor mount and bicycle butt on will twist and compress under heavy power loads without this bar. Actually it attaches to the bike frame near the axle using the stock rack mount on the dropout. The driveline parts are as follows They were ordered from Bearing Belt Chain in Las Vegas atwww. bearing. com. * belt GATES POWER GRIP GT2 5MR-400-25 Gates part 9390-8080 $11. 35 * motor sprocket GATES P21-5MGT-25-MPB Gates part 7709-5021 $17. 0 * jackshaft sprocketGATES P64-5MGT-25-1610 Gates part 7709-2064 $30. 52 * sprocket hub mount for above GATES 1610 1/2 TAPER silence BUSHING part 7858-1608 * jackshaft ball bearings MRC part R8Z $11. 56 ea. (2) * jackshaft machined from 1/2 stainless steel stock * jackshaft chain sprocket 35 chain, 13 tooth MARTIN 35BS13HT 1/2 bore $6. 91 * rear wheel chain spro cket 35 chain, 36 tooth MARTIN 35B36 $11. 56 (modified on my lathe to fit) * chain 35 chain that I had lying around length is 50 think (100 rollers) 37-1/2 longA number of machining, fabrications,and modifications I had to do myself. The jackshaft mount is the most elaborate part to make and took some time. The jackshaft and motor need to be very rigidly connected and aligned, yet adjustable to set the belt tension. I used a 1/4 aluminum plate and welded a 1-1/4 alum. tube to this. There are two diagonal braces welded to these you can only see the upper one in the photos. The braces just clear the motor. Then the tube was bored in the lathe for the two ball bearings. It also has ring grooves for retaining rings to hold the bearing in place.The 1/2 shaft is about 5 long, also with ring grooves. There are a total of 4 stainless steel 1/4-20 allen bolts holding the whole thing to the face of the Scott motor using the existing tapped holes. As I mentioned, three of the holes in the jackshaft plate are actually curved slots to allow for adjustment to tension the belt, the whole thing pivoting a little around the fourth bolt. The 21-tooth motor sprocket was bored to 5/8 on my lathe. It is fixed to the motor shaft with a 1/8 steel split pin or roll pin. I had to drill a hole for this pin through the sprocket and motor shaft.Roll pins are much stronger than set screws, and they are pressed or driven in, so they dont come loose. Theyre also easier to machine than Woodruff key-ways. The large 64 tooth belt sprocket catchd in solid steel and was ridiculously heavy. Aluminum was not available. So I drill it out extensively to lighten it as you can see. The chain sprocket bolts to the hub of the belt sprocket with two 10-32 allen screws, the holes for which I drilled and tapped. The motor is mounted to the bicycle frame on a specially made 1/8 thick stainless steel bracket. The whole bracket bolts to tabs welded to the bike frame with three allen bolts.The chain, dri ve belt and motor can be removed from the bike in about 3 minutes. Finally, I had to attach a sprocket to the rear wheel. I finally decided to just try clamping a sprocket to the spokes. This may seem like a clumsy solution but I have seen it done on a number of other applications. It has been reliable and has not damaged the spokes at all. Sometimes simple and direct wins the day. For those of you familiar with the Currie US ProDrive, a very popular electric drive kit for bikes, this is basically the same way they bolt their motor plate to the bike wheel.Looks somewhat artless? Fine, but it works, bolts quickly to a wholly unmodified bike wheel, and has beentrouble free. I started by boring out a standard type-B 36-tooth sprocket (the kind with an integral offset hub) to where the hole would just fit around the protruding wheel hub. This locates the sprocket nicely on the hub center. Then I basically approach the hub down to nearly nothing on the lathe, just enough to space the sprocket out away from the spokes. Then I drilled 9 holes for 10-32 screws. The screws go through the spaces where the spokes cross.I made three curved clamp plates with three holes each for the inside of the wheel. For off-road use I intend to get a different wheel with a knobby tire and a larger sprocket to lower the gearing for better hill climbing. A couple of extra chain links will make it easy to switch out. The net of all this is that finally I have got it really right. I can whack the throttle discourteous and closed at any speed and there will be no belt slippage of any kind. The first thing I did was to go down the street and climb this steep rocky trail that gave the old bike problems. Even with the relatively igh gearing, the forward-looking driveline shot me right up the thing. I even popped a little wheelie over the top of it. That sure never happened before. Now I can finally use all of the torque this Scott motor can put out.DESIGN & COMPONENT DETAILS BATTERIESTher e is no interview that the battery is the single thing,the one and only, overriding thing, that is holding back the development and mass proliferation of electric vehicles. At this point in time most of us are still stuck with using lead acid batteries. I am now using B&B 16 Ah batteries, made in China.Originally I used Hawker Odyssey batteries model PC545, 12 lbs. each, which are basically the same as the Hawker contemporaries G13EP. All of the batteries I have used are deep-cycling, AGM (Absorbed Glass Matt) sealed lead acid batteries (SLA) and are about the best quality lead acid battery available. They can be mounted in any position except upside down and they are sealed and maintenance free. They are much like the Optima batteries used in many advanced electric vehicles like the EV-1 and the Sparrow but are available in a wider variety of smaller sizes. I got them at Thunderstruck-EV. com.They now run about $50 each. It is nice that there is some competition now in this type of battery and the prices are coming down by about half from what I paid for my first set. Of course lithium ion batteries of some kind would be the great enabler. atomic number 3 is just now entering the market, they are still quite expensive and something of a question mark. Conventional lithium cells, as used in laptops, have a thermal runaway spileential meaning they tend to catch fire, in some cases like a Roman candle. New materials and chemistries based on lithium are attempting to address the safety problem.I have seen batteries called LiFePo4 lithium iron phosphate offered for sale at confused websites selling electric bikes and accessories. They are claiming no fire problems, At this point, it looks like a decent battery pack for a bike like this would cost around $1000 or more. That is a lot of money to spend on a battery with a 1-year or 2-year warranty. In my opinion, these batteries need to come down to the sub-$300 range before I would really be interested. A bat tery is rated in voltage and amp-hours. Voltage times amps times hours equals watt-hours and this is the total energy available from the battery.So my battery pack has 2 x 12V x 16Ah = 384 watt hours. In other words it will give 384 watts for an hour. But actually, it wont. The 16 Ah is a rating to be taken with a very large grain of salt. An essential thing to know about batteries is thatthey give a lesser amount of total energy when laid-off at a high rate. Read that last sentence again and absorb it, its important. A batterys electrical power is not like a ice-skating rink of water. If you drain that glass quickly or slowly, it contains the same amount of water. Batteries, not so. Draw high amperage, and your total amount of energy is lessBecause of this, batteries are often rated nominally at a slow 10-hour discharge rate, in which case they will give more total energy and thus seem like a better battery. Bikes and all electric vehicles use energy at a very high rate. A bike can easily draw enough current to discharge a battery pack fully in under half an hour, so batteries will not give their rated end product under these conditions. Another tempting choice for cheap batteries might be Panasonic or Powersonic or Sonnenschein gel-cell /lead acid batteries. Gel cells are the typical batteries that come with most stock electric bicycles and kits.They are not AGM. Longevity is not as good, though the stated juice per weight ratio seems better, and they are available in a variety of smaller sizes if weight were more of an issue than range. Hawker makes slightly larger AGM batteries such as the G16EP like my B&B which have a little more juice but are also heavier. The Hawkers are very well made. Another great thing about AGM type batteries is that they can be charged quickly at much higher amps than other kinds of lead acid batteries. Likewise they have the ability to give high current with no problems.AGM batteries are also unique among almost all battery types in that they retain a full charge for months with no charge leakage. One of the big drawbacks of of NiMH batteries is that they discharge about 1% to 2% per day. Regular lead acid batteries will just go dead in a few months as well. Because of this, AGM batteries are also marketed to people with antique cars and snow plows vehicles that arent used very often and are likely to have a dead battery when you finally want to start it up. All lead acid batteries have two big drawbacks. They are quite heavy for the total amount of power they deliver.And even these so called deep cycle batteries really should not be deep-cycled too often, as repeated deep discharging dramatically shortens their useable lifespan. This is where NiCads have lead acid beat, as they are more power dense and can be run down pretty much all the way without much damage. Of course large NiCads are much more expensive and must be recycled carefully due to the toxic cadmium. So until better batteries like NiM H or Lithium Ion are more widely available in vehicle sizes and less expensive, Hawkers and other AGM type lead acid are about the best we can do.More ruminations on the Great Battery Quest below. Batteries and 120 amp speed controller mounted in the main frame space. SPEED CONTROLLER A speed controller or motor controller is essential in applying the voltage and power that is delivered to the motor from the batteries. All decent electric vehicles need a motor controller of some kind. On a bike with a very small motor it might be possible to just have an on-off arrangement, and I suppose there are other less expensive and much cruder ways to control speed but I feel that a decent controller is absolutely necessary with a powerful motor like this.The controller is a rather expensive electronic black box with no moving parts. A upstart PWM or pulse width modulation controller is very reliableas long as its current limit is not exceeded. Unfortunately a high ampere capable controller is not cheap and may cost about as much as the motor. Curtis controllers are well known in golf carts and other industrial vehicles, however I am using a Scoota 180 amp speed controller from 4QD. www. 4QD. co. uk. This is a small company in England, that specializes in smaller and cheaper controllers for light electric vehicles. The controller with a matching thumb-lever throttle was $248.It is capable of regenerative braking, thought you can easily disable this function. Previously I tried a Scoota 120 amp model that was nearly identical. It failed subsequently a few months. I was just working it too hard and the output connections overheated and melted. The 4QD factory has a nice policy of repairing their controllers and exchanging them for different ones if you want, with a very fair exchange allowance. The new 180 amp model gets a little warm but has been quite dependable for well over three years now. I originally used an Eagle 80 amp controller from the same company. It was $ 120.It failed due to hot up but that was tout ensemble my fault for using a much too-small controller. If I lived on flat terrain I think it would have been fine and would have lasted a long time, peculiarly since I added a finned aluminum heat draw from an audio power amplifier try a decent electronics store, by chance even Radio Shack. You need to size your controller at about 3 times the rated power of your motor. My motor is rated at 41 amps continuous, HOWEVER it will draw a lot more than that at full throttle under load. Manufacturers tend to state their controllers at intermittent current limits.For example a Scoota 120 will put out 120 ampsfor a short timebut should not be run that high continuously. Regenerative braking nice idea but . . . A lot of people inquire about regenerative braking. Hybrid car manufacturers often tout the ability to reclaim electrical energy when the car is going downhill. I dont know how much energy they are getting back in a car, but on a l ittle electric bicycle, it is almost certainly never expenditure the added trouble, expense, and operational hassles. You would be much better off with a freewheeling setup. Let me explain how Ive come to this conclusion.The speed controller I usehas regenerative braking available. afterwards trying it out for a while, adjusting it and testing it every which way, I ended updisabling it. Regenerative braking means that as you bracken or coast downhill the controller will use the motor in reverse as a generator to re-charge the batteries. On my route to the market, for instance, I am on flat terrain for a while and then go downhill for about a mile to reach the store. Conceivably this could mean that I arrive at the store with nearly full batteries, which would make the ride back less likely to drain the batteries completely.However, the regenerative braking is a function of the speed controller. If you have the region set up for maximum regeneration, the throttle can be quite touch y. And if you just suddenly release the throttle, which is fairly normal behaviour, the braking effect would be full. It is really not very good to have the throttle set up to brake that hard. I found myself about launching over the handle bars every time I lost forgot and snapped the throttle off. Also, this is a good way to have other people ride your bike and crash it. Note there is no freewheel on the electric side of my bicycle.A custom freewheel is yet another surprisingly difficult mechanical part to machine or to buy. Of course the pedal-drive freewheel still works, which means that you can motor without the pedals being forced to turn. However, ityou pedal the motor will necessarily be turning, which is a drawback if the batteries hand. The regenerative braking function requires a solid connection to the wheel. However, after some time with this bike, using the regen function of the special speed controller, I came to a surprising conclusionagainstusing regen. As I say I b ought a controller with regenerative braking.With this set-up, I could basically use the thumb-throttle carefully as a fairly powerful rear brake. The amount of braking could be adjusted to make it less grabby, but I never could get it to the point where I liked it at all. It was obtrusive and difficult to control. I suppose if you could hook it up to a draw sensitive brake lever, it would work better, however, that is a bit beyond the level of sophistication I think is really necessary on a little electric bike. Luckily the regen function can be defeated which is what I finally decided to do. Realize, all vehicles are regenerative going down a hill.Turning the engine off down a long hill in your car and coasting this is reclaiming the energy spent to climb the hill. Unless the vehicle is very heavy and/or has great aerodynamics, most of the energy going down a hill will just be used to overcome air resistance, with little left over to recharge the batteries. Normally on a bicycle , very little braking is ever necessary, and top speed down most hills is quickly limited by poor aerodynamics. The net result, I felt, is that the regen on my ebike was just slowing me down and creating heavy backloading on the drive recrudesce needlessly.It would be better to put the motor on a freewheel and adopt a method of getting up to speed and coasting as often as possible with the motor shut off. This riding technique is apparently very effective at extending your range, probably more so than having regen. Many people who deal even with larger EVs and hybrids have also formed the opinion that a pure freewheeling function would be better in many instances than regenerative braking. The regenerative braking function of hybrid cars, for instance, is vastly overstated. Hybrids work by generating their lectric power onboard using the gas engine they have a power generation function built-in, it is primordial to the entire concept. So why not use it for braking as well? Sure, b ut in reality this produces very little in the way of get power. The batteries in hybrid cars are charged at least 95% by the using the gas engine as a generator and the reason they are so efficient in city driving is simply because they can run at slow speeds very efficiently on predominantly electric power. It is only while driving at higher speeds down long steep grades that any decent power is truly regenerated to the batteries.How much of this describes typical driving conditions? Coasting with minimal drag from the motor is actually much more efficient. While coasting the vehicle uses no juice whatsoever. It is common practice during mileage or efficiency runs with a hybrid like the Honda Insight, to accelerate to speed, then go into neutral and coast for a ways. This actually produces the greatest mileage and efficiency. On an electric bike it is undoubtedly most efficient to pulse the motor on till you get up to speed, and coast on downhills, or pedal on the flat to mainta in speed. Having the motor freewheel would be a big advantage.Unfortunately, a decent ready made right-hand drive doesnt seem to be available, at least for a reasonable price. A minor drawback. THROTTLE At first I simply got a $2. 00 10K potentiometer from Radio Shack, pumped-up(a) it up to the 4QD wiring and mounted it on a plastic spacer beneath the right-hand hand grip. There was no spring return, you had to turn it down to slow down, but on the other hand it was cheap and simple and the brakes can easily overcome the motor in an emergency stopping situation. Also, it worked absolutely as a cruise control. Then with the new larger motor controller I got a box-mounted thumb lever throttle.This is just a short-throw 10k pot with a return spring and lever mounted on the end. There are now motorcycle-style twist grip throttles with built in pots widely available at scooter shops for about $50, such as the Magura. The Scoota controller requires an on-off switch I got a small rocker thumb switch from an electronics store, and mounted it in the throttle box. thumb-lever throttle and on-off switch BATTERY CHARGER I found a great 24-volt 5 amp automatic charger made for the now-defunct e-bike EV Warrior from All Electronics bare in LA. It was 20 bucks, its compact and works wonderfully.What a bargain I got two. These may not still be available but there are a few sites that deal with scooters and electric bikes now that have similar chargers for $50 to $80. When I was first building this bike, in the new world of electric vehicle hobbyists, a good non-12V charger (or any decent component for that matter) was hard to come by cheaply. For instance, I scoured the surplus electric suppliers looking for a decent, powerful, cheap 12V or 24V motor and basically came up empty. Before this I used a Sears 12V auto battery charger, charging each battery separately.This worked fine but remembering to go out and switch the charger between batteries was very inconvenient. The EV Warrior charger shuts off automatically, the bike is unendingly charged and ready to ride.COST AND CONSTRUCTION DETAILSI used high quality parts and the total cost of all the added components including charger came to about $950. Not cheap, but my new mountain bike cost more than that and you have to pedal it. You can get a turn-key electric motor kit for around $400-700, or a readymade e-bike for $1000-2000, but of course the motors and batteries are all only 1/3 as powerful as this. WeightAt 85 pounds, this is pretty heavy for a bicycle, but I think of it more as an ultra light moped. And it is a true mo-ped in that you can still meaningfully pedal it. Plus I can still lift it into my pickup or my car trunk if needed. My old Peugeot moped weighed twice as much at 150 pounds with similar speed capability, and pedalling it was a joke the pedals were geared really low, purely for starting the motor. Brakes The old brakes on this bike were okay for 12 mph but hair-raising at 30 mph. A new side pull vee brake as used on decent Modern plentifulness bikes luckily bolted right onto the old brake mount posts.Regular bicycles are too light and top heavy to use the front brake as the main squeeze, but as any motorcyclist can tell you, on any heavier two wheeler the front brake does 90% of the work. The vee-brake kit was about 25 bucks on sale at a bike dealer, and came with a new lever for the handle bar. I only replaced the front brake, as the rear posts are in the amiss(p) place. A number of people have written to ask me where the rear brake is it looks like there is no rear brake at all. Look closely in the photos the rear brake on this GT mountain bike in mounted down low, on the chain stays, just aft of the pedal crank.Frame I would encourage people doing this kind of conversion to use a heavy duty steel mountain bike frame. The components can take the added force and weight of the motor system. Mountain bike components now are amazingly strong and durab le they are made to take off-road abuse. The wider wheels in particular are much better for the additional weight and power. Also, a steel frame is easier to weld or braze motor and battery mounts onto. Stay away from aluminum unless you can figure a way to bolt or clamp everything on without welding. Welding onto an aluminum frame will likely ruint the tempering and severely weaken it.Its quite difficult to weld on thin aluminum. My old GT was too heavy for a good mountain bike these geezerhood but just the ticket for an electric motor project. The peculiar geometry of the GT rear frame design actually makes a perfect place for the motor. Construction I had to weld a motor mount onto the rear frame behind the seat. The chain just clears the wheel and frame and it was critical to get the motor solidly mounted. With such a powerful motor, the motor mount must be strong, and its really pretty important to have a ball-bearing motor. The motor mount is obliterable from the frame wit h three allen head screws.I have a TIG welder and lots of metal working tools so it was not a big deal for me but I dont see why all this couldnt be done on a steel bike frame with silver solder or brazing rod and a gas torch. The batteries also have a very solid welded-on mount with a screw-down top retaining rail. The batteries are heavy and need a good solid mount with shock padding. These batteries are narrow and dont interfere at all with pedalling. In this arrangement they are also low and keep the center of staidness down. LEGAL ISSUES OF ELECTRIC BICYCLES At 20 mph this bike is basically legal as an unregistered motorized bicycle in Calif.I believe the federal official laws now allow up to a 750 watt motor, which is what the Scott is (1 horsepower = 746 watts. ) Also, the Federal Law limits such bikes to 20 mph. I fully expected the Feds to cripple these vehicles with a something like a 400 watt limit, but for once was pleasantly surprised its actually a rational and reaso nable law and probably promotes good electric bikes rather than underpowered toys that no one will buy. Geared for 30 mph this would technically have to be registered and insured as a motorized cycle or possibly as a full motorcycle.Not sure exactly what the difference is but I believe there is a technical distinction. However, used judiciously, most people are still going to assume that its just a particularly fast bicycle, especially if its being pedaled. Actually I have no problem with a legal limit of 20 mph. Slow is not bad. The wind noise is less and you can actually seek the world. A bike limited to 20 with no registration and no insurance and no drivers license (and no noise and no vibration and no gasoline and no mechanics and no smog checks and no smog and no parking hassles and no car payments . . . ) Not a bad tradeoff, to put it mildly.I would not recommend riding on bike paths or foot trails. Most of these bar motorized vehicles of any kind, even if its not posted. It is tempting since the bike is silent and by pedaling, most people will not even notice that youve got a motor. I think speed is the key. If I must ride on a bike path, I use the pedals and just dont go any faster than a gently pedaled bicycle. It is hard to argue with that, and no one ever has. I think eventually there will be a lot more electric bicycles and other small powered vehicles and it will probably become a problem competing with pedestrians, roller bladers, etc.The advent of affordable lithium batteries will mean that electric vehicles of all kinds will be become radically better, and immensely popular. Its just inevitable. Theres already enough friction between these groups on crowded paths and trails. This is another reason why keeping maximum speeds under 20 mph is probably a good idea. FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS, VARIATIONS AND POSSIBILITIES Its the batteries, stupid. This bike is great fun right now but I can see a lot of room for improvement. Ah, batteries, ever the Achil les heel of the electric vehicle.Oh how I hate lead acid batteries but still stuck with them. NiMH, Lithium Ion, or nickel Zinc batteries would improve the juice-to-weight ratio enormously, and would probably double the range, which is the single least satisfactory thing about this and all electric bikes. The batteries now weigh over 25 pounds and are the heaviest single component. There are some reasons for hope. The increasing numbers of hybrid cars are generally using NiMH batteries which should trickle down eventually and be very suitable for electric bikes.Other battery chemistries as well have made it to market, though success continuously seems elusive. The biggest promise right now is that GM and Toyota are really pushing to put lithium batteries in the next generations of hybrid cars and plug-in hybrids. GMs Chevy Volt, due out by 2010, will only work if they succeed in mass producing lithium ions, and getting the cost down. Its kind of a chicken and egg problem huge mas s mathematical product will bring the cost down, but until theyre cheaper, there isnt enough demand to mass produce them.The soaring price of motor fuels and the resulting demand for more and better hybrid cars is probably what will convince manufacturers to bite the bullet and build the factories. The promise of lithium ion. Certainly the lithium battery has the greatest potential of all the next-generation chemistries. It has the most energy per pound and is well proven in smaller applications like cell phones and laptops. A unimaginative battery with this capacity would almost at once put battery vehicles on a competitive footing with gasoline powered ones.Current conventional lithium ions have a weighty weakness they die completely after about 2 to 3 years, no matter what. But again, if GM and Toyota succeed in getting lithium batteries into hybrids, as they say they will within the next two years, it will mean that they have largely eliminated or minimized these drawbacks. Progress with this battery seems to be steady. They are now being used in some cordless power tools, which use bigger cell sizes and draw heavier loads than electronic devices. They dont use any heavy metals. There re a number of new types of lithium cells that dont burst into flames when overheated or pierced. A123 has some of the most successful new cells, and Toshiba has even demonstrate cells that can be recharged almost fully in just a few minutes. Chinese cells are now on the market especially for bicycles called LiFePo4. These cells are available in a battery pack for small electric vehicles called the Eonyx, as well as from other packagers. They are still something of an unknown quantity. one time these get into more peoples hands, we will be able to get a reading on their longevity and performance.Right now they are still aboutten or fifteen times as expensive as lead acid batteries. Well, what about fuel cells? Of course the concept and demonstrations of this still-expe rimental technology is very compelling, but there has been so much hype on the subject that it is still hard to say if this is all just incredibly successful marketing spin by the FC developers. I also think that in the early 2000s there was an element of clever subterfuge by the auto industry to take the heat off the fact that average fuel economy in this country was decreasing due to ever more popular and larger SUVs.It is so much easier and cheaper for an auto company like GM to run a relatively small early research project on fuel cells, than it is to do serious engineering on real live production-ready hybrid development. Even in 2006 there are still basically no economically practical fuel cells in actual use and even their promoters say that any commercially viable model is at least 5 years off and maybe 10. It is the running joke that the day of widespread fuel cells and the hydrogen economy always seems to be 20 years off no matter when the question is asked.And then, wher e do we get all the hydrogen? Seems to me hydrogen is and will remain way more expensive than any petro fuel and I have never seen any realistic ideas to overcome this problem. And we store it in 10,000 psi cylinders in the trunk? Uh, OK . . . Believe me I would love to be proved wrong and initially was excited about this technology like everyone else, but increasingly I am thinking the emperor has no clothes. Maybe a loincloth. Motors are already pretty much perfected, right? Well, yes and no. My Scott motor is starting to look like a dinosaur, it ould stand to lose some weight. The power is actually about right for a bicycle but just look at it, its too big and heavy. There are tons of little scooters out there and it would be possible to get a 500 watt or 750 watt scooter motor, which is would undoubtedly work well. Currently (July 2009) I see that a 24V Currie 600 watt motor is available for around $130. It is compact and powerful. The MAC 600W motor might be a better choice but is $279. raise evdeals. com for an updated motor availability. I would love to get a Lemco pancake motor, www. lemcoltd. om they are light, powerful, and efficient but expensive. This company is now making even smaller motors that would be perfect for high-powered bikes but $800 for a motor is a bit much. And of course my whole motorization scheme, with the belt and chain, is not terribly clean or elegant. I personally thinkthe hub motoris the obvious solution for electric bikes, as used on Lee Iacoccas E-bike and the Wavecrest (which seems to have died and resurrected as the E+) and others. Heinzmann of Germany seems to still be making a variety of hub motors, as are other companies.Try Heinzmanns site www. estelle. de for some pretty interesting ideas I guess they are now selling bikes, complete kits, motors, batteries and controllers. However, at this point they are still only about 300 watts = 1/3 HP which is about 1/3 of what they ought to be. Also, Heinzmann motors tend to be a little noisy and expensive. A hub wheel motor replaces the normal wheel hub and obviously needs no other transmission, chain, or belt which is a huge simplification although of course this can also be a slight drawback in that the gear ratio cant be changed.A very popular and reasonably priced hub motor made in China seems to be theCrystalyte, though I havent used one myself. There is a similar system sold byWilderness Energy. These aresold in kits where the hub motor is basically spoked to a bike wheel rimof your choice and you just replace your old wheel with the motorized one. They tend to go on the front wheel but can also be installed at the rear. The kits include a pretty slick speed controller, throttle, and brake-switches to cut the power. Often batteries are a separate purchase.The hubs themselves are made in various voltages, powers, and rotational speeds to match various wheel sizes and top speed requirements. This seems to be a decent site with links to dealers in the US and Canada www. evsolutions. net. The gearing, for my use, could certainly benefit from a nice simpletwo-speed transmission. One speed for the hill and the other for the flat. Electric motors have such great torque throughout the RPM range that more than two speeds just isnt necessary unless the motor is severely underpowered. The obvious thing to me would be a hub motor with two or three speeds built in. I have never seen such a beast.I think with better batteries and motor, this bike could easily weigh 25 pounds less or have twice the range, maybe both. The frame and wheels are no lightweights either, at 36 pounds. Thats a good 10 pounds more than my new mountain bike, and its got a suspension fork. So in short with modern components this type of bike could easily weigh less than 50 lbs. Performance would improve, it would be easier to pedal and you could even carry it on a car crownwork rack. How about asolar cell battery charger? They sell these to RV owners. Actually theres no reason why you couldnt throw a solar cell on your roof and charge the batteries all day.Imagine this is real-world fully solar powered transportation, doable today. As further work on the existing bike, I would love to put a suspension fork on the front and maybe a suspension seat post. Lights would be nice. At this point this bike would be an amazing transportation unit by any standards, not just electric vehicles. Also, this starts to become a pretty intriguing possibility for a trail bike. I used to have dirt bikes but they are dirty and noisy and environmentally a big problem. A dirt bike is a blast but youre not exactly communing with nature.A completely silent electric trail bike would be much more like hiking aesthetically, and would leave up long-range trails cant wait to get some better batteries and go up to the mountains. I can also see going to ahigher voltage system. 36 or even 48 voltswould be a lot better and keep the current draw down. I started with a 1 2 V system for simplicitys sake but the power was low and the current draw was high. I wont go into the basics of electric power except to say that lower voltage is bad because it leads to higher current which creates more heat and requires a much bigger motor controller.Controllers are basically sold by amperage or current capacity, and high amperage controllers are much more expensive than lower amperage ones. The same controller can put out twice as much power at the same amperage level if the system voltage is doubled. I have even considered simply adding another battery on this bike and just over-volting the motor to 36 volts. The motor is probably able to take it (though Im sure the manufacturer wouldnt recommend it) and my controller can easily be switched to 36 V. The bike would be heavier, faster, and have better range.Its just a trade off. Intriguing. (Note that most controllers have voltage limitations and must be altered or jumpered to make system voltage changes. ) That s whats neat about electrics for the tinkerer you can change motors, change batteries, change controllers, change gearing its all so easy and alike(p) compared to an internal combustion vehicle. Imagine a having an old Vespa scooter, and you think one day Gee, wouldnt it be interesting to put a nice new Honda 200cc engine in that thing youd have to be half nuts to even consider it.Turnkey solutions. So you dont have a TIG welder and a metal lathe? You just want to bolt something onto your bicycle? As Ive mentioned the turnkey kits made by Wilderness Energy and Crystalyte seem to be the simplest and cleanest ways to electrify a bicycle. Since I made this bike there have been some developments in the electric bike world. The popular Curry USProDrive bolt-on kit that I eschewed as too undepowered was always a decent kit but I dont think its available at all anymore.The batteries were not AGM quality, the stock controller was jerky and mounted inside the motor where its hard to keep cool, and the drive train was not terribly robust, but all in all a decent kit, and they sold quite a few of them. A similar concept called Lashout seems to be available. This kit has a built-in freewheel on the motor which is nice. MISCELLANEOUS THOUGHTS Here in 2008, with the cost of gas now at $4. 50 a gallon, true pain is being felt by almost everyone at the fuel pumps, and by the sellers of old fashioned gas burning vehicles. Big cars and SUVs are sitting on dealers lots. There are 4 month waits.There is now tremendous pressure to come up with solutions. This should, finally, lead to some real improvements in pure electric transportation. I love the idea of electric vehicles but the practical electric car is still not quite a reality. The electric bike to me is now a real-world, affordable and practical solution. The limited range is not a big deal for errands around town and short commutes. Given that really nice batteries are going to be expensive for the foreseeable future, it makes so much more sense to use a couple of small ones on a bike than try to pay for 300 big ones for a car.Most people wont justify a limited range full-size electric car just for groceries and errands, but many people could throw an e-bike or two in their garage without thinking twice. Grown adults giggle when they ride my bike. It is very quiet its like some genie is pedaling for you. The silence is very important it just completely changes the whole picture. You can actually hear things and stop and pull up onto the sidewalk and talk to your neighbors when you ride down the street. I have pulled up right away into my ATM booth and people hardly give me a second glance not even thinkable on a motorcycle.Electrics are not intimidating like a motorcycle or even a scooter to most people, theyre just a bicycle you dont have to pedal. Theres no clutch, no gears to shift, no kickstarter. They arent just environmentally friendly theyre neighborhood and people friendly. Another amazing thing to me this is not rocket science technology. This is lead acid batteries powering a DC motor on a steel bike frame this bike could pretty much have been made 80 or 100 years ago Those new-fangled high pressure pneumatic tires may be the most modern component Why has it taken so long for e-bikes to take off?I offer these design and component ideas to anyone who can make use of them and encourage anyone with a garage and some tools to make an electric bike or buy a kit or a ready-made. At my house we have a very fast motorcycle, a hybrid car and a pickup, but the e-bike is the most fun I use it almost every day. And the most amazing thing that I have learned after all of this you really dont need 4000 pounds of gasoline powered steel-rubber-plastic-and-glass, $30,000-120-mph marvel-of-modern-transportation-engineering to go a mile and a half for a quart of milk, a loaf of cabbage and a newspaper.EARLY VERSIONS V1. 0 had just one long vee-belt from the motor to the re ar wheel. It had a top speed of around 30 which was great but slowed to about 12 mph on the steep hill near my house. However, other people building their own have asked about using the single vee-belt because it is easier to put together without machine tools, and it works pretty well on the flat. The goals were these * gear reduction from a 3000 rpm motor in the neighborhood of 81 to 101 * retain existing pedal function derailleur and freewheel * rear wheel drive * simplicity * quiet operation * use available parts can be grafted onto the existing bike wheel * power transmission efficiency * stay away from friction tire-drive too much slippage and tire wear * stay away from chain drive at 3000 rpm a chain is too noisy The single belt reduction runs from a 1. 75 drive wheel on the motor directly to a 16 driven pulley mounted to the left side of the rear wheel. This is actually a 20 bicycle rim mounted to the wheel hub using half of the rims spokes through additional spoke holes drilled into the wheel hub. This setup gives a reduction of about 8 to 1. The vee-belt setup, giving a reduction ratio of 81 V1. After using the single vee-belt reduction for a while, it seemed that I needed to gear the bike down some more. At full throttle the belt would slip on really steep hills off-road. Also it was overheating on my hill and ended up burning out my 80 amp controller. So after some thought I added an idler shaft or jackshaft for an initial belt reduction. I have a metal lathe and fabricated a bearing housing for a 1/2 shaft running on ball bearings. This is mounted on a pivoting system in order to get the belt tensioned correctly. With the pulley combination pictured below I have an overall reduction of 17 to 1.This translates into a top speed of 13 mph and good hill climbing ability. The most critical thing on a setup like this is to mount the jackshaft very solidly so that it stays parallel to the motor shaft under belt tension and during high power loads. T his required a lot of reinforcement of the mounting bracket, as the whole thing mounts to the motor face using two bolts, and flex was a problem. Double reduction using toothed belt to a jackshaft running on ball bearings I suspected the ideal gear ratio for my needs lies somewhere in the middle. I will probably settle on a top speed of about 20 mph. The good thing about his setup is that I can change the gearing fairly easily with just a couple of different toothed belt wheels and possibly a slightly different length belt. The primary belt I added is a Gates Powergrip XL belt. I actually had a chunk of belts and wheels lying around from other motorization projects but these are available from ball bearing and rubber belt industrial suppliers. This belt is really way too small and narrow for a motor this size at full throttle, but hey it was free. 80 AMP CONTROLLER Controller with added heat sink mounted to the top tube This is the previous Eagle 80 amp controller from 4QD.It melte d down from driving over 100 amps for extended lengths of time. It is really too small for the Scott 1hp motor but worked surprisingly well for quite a while. Like the Scooter 120, it has adjustable acceleration and deceleration curves, but no regenerative function. V1. 4had a single long timing belt. After experimenting with a single vee-belt and an earlier two stage belt reduction, I tried to simplify in the name of efficiency. I especially wanted to get rid of the vee-belt completely, which would slip on really steep hills and also is less efficient than a timing belt.This setup was less than ideal because the belt is so long. There was not enough room for a wider belt and this belt was simply not strong enough for the amount of power being delivered. Also, this Type L timing belt was noisier than I had expected. The trapezoidal tooth shape is noisy, and the idler tensioning wheel added a surprising amount of racket even though it was running on the flat side of the belt. I. WHAT IS MEANT BY POWER ASSIST? A power assist is any vehicle with any number of wheels that is primarily or partly human powered, and assisted by a small motor.An electric bicycle is probably the most common such vehicle. Power assist enthusiasts are typically interested in simple human-scaled transportation that is earth-friendly, fun, non-intimidating, and affordable. Transportation that either extends the range of their bicycling, allows them to arrive at work without needing a shower, or allows them to leave the car at home more often. Many people are somewhat familiar with old-style mopeds, which are technically power assists. However they are too heavy to really be pedalled more than to start the engine.Mopeds are really lightweight scooters with pedals and limited top speeds which allow them to qualify in most parts of the world for lesser registration and insurance classifications. Many people feel thata more serviceable set of pedals is important. This means the vehicle must b e light enough to pedal meaningfully, either with or without the motor energized. Practically speaking it should weigh less than 75 lbs. or 35 kg and of course the lighter, the better. A power assist is not meant to entirely replace human power. The exact amount of assist desired, however, is really up to the individual.Today electric vehicles are becoming more popular, but there are still internal combustion engine (ICE) power assists that perform well. They both have their adherents, but really they each have their place as their strengths and weaknesses are in different areas. ELECTRIC ASSISTStodays practical electric vehicle The practical electric car has become a kind of Holy Grail and is the subjec