Thursday, October 31, 2019

Answer the following and write each answer to each page , it has to be Assignment

Answer the following and write each answer to each page , it has to be 4 pages - Assignment Example n the ties between a given religions enables spiritual strength in this essence sharing basic meal and drinks with people from the same faith strengthen the relationship and work in strengthen beliefs. The concept of communality is all about sharing with those who are less privileged as a means of showcasing the humanitarian aspects. In a wider spectrum the concept of communality is a means of ensuring world peace by reducing the aspects of conflict (Boff 233-65). In situations where exist a culture of intolerance the concept of communality. In this case conflicts arise due to either lack of tolerance or the inequitable in terms of resources. Those deprived basic resources result in conflict as a means of expressing their dissatisfaction According to Boff (197-99) the element of communality is to allow those privileged to share with others as a principle of hospitality. The concept would work a long way to ensure the world is peaceful by eliminating causes of conflicts. The society need to work in the best interest of the human race and create a culture of sharing. The charter of compassion (2008) derives its model based on tolerance. In this compassion is meant to deal with differences that exist within the world. By dealing with religious, political and ideological differences the world would have dealt with the demerits cased by conflicts. The charter outlines how humans coexist within their natural spaces. The bond between humans could be achieved if the charter of compassion is fully realized. The basis of the principle of compassion is laid on spiritual, ethical and religious components. The principle outline the needed for equity, and respect for all human races. According to the charter the world should gear towards creating a culture of similarities by utilizing the necessary mechanism. The charter differs from the concept of communality in that it addresses the responsibility of humans in a bid to minimize conflict. In this case the element of

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

M&Ms Project Report Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

M&Ms Project Report - Assignment Example The results were that 51 bags were sampled( 17 students * 3 bags each=51) and the number of candies evaluated was 2872 which were of different colors. 2. Finding out the Standard Deviation and Mean The next phase was to identify the average number of candies/ bag. The statistical average of a sample is called mean . In our case it is 2872/51 which is equal to 56.3 candies/bag. This gives an idea whether the number of candies that was fixed to be in a bag before marketing was more or less than a predecided amount. This is an important aspect of quality check. Apart from mean the Standard Deviation which is the positive square root of mean of squared deviations of all scores from their mean was calculated. The SD thereby indicate the spread or scatter or deviations of scores around a central value(mean). It is expressed by s= square root(summation of deviations/sample size). In our case it is + 1.9234 candies which means in some bags the probability of more or less candies than the mea n(56.3) is 1.9 that is either it can be 58.2 or 54.4. 3. Confidence Interval and Its Importance The confidence interval of a parameter is the range of scores within which the parameter has a given probability of lying.This is called fiducial probability.The two scores forming the lower and upper limits are called confidence limits. The fiducial probability is called the confidence level and when expressed as a percentage gives the degree of confidence in expecting a parameter to lie the given confidence interval. It is thus an interval estimate of a parameter and is more dependable than a point estimate( like the mean). In our analysis for example if we want to evaluate the CI we can infer that the proportion of blue candies in lying between 0.2087 and 0.2391 is 95%. It can be calculated as follows: Upper Limit= Mean + Standard Score (z) at the level of alpha * Standard Error of mean Lower Limit= Mean - Standard Score (z) at the level of alpha * Standard Error of mean. Therefore 1-a lpha=0.95 or 95% fiducial probability. This means that higher the fiducial probability wider the confidence interval and greater the probability of population mean falling in that interval but the lower will be the precision of estimate for true value of population mean. In our case study from the confidence intervals of various candies it seems that the error of 0.11(upper limit-Mean or Mean- Lower Limit) is minimal with the yellow candies so the proportion of yellow candies can be truly estimated the most if we consider the whole population of candies/bag in the M& M industries. The number of candies with a confidence limit has a error of +0.5 4. Part 4- Testing of Hypothesis and Z test. In this portion we try to find out whether the proportions of candies which are estimated are true and there exists no whatsoever any statistical difference of significance of various candies in different bags. The minor difference what is seen is speculated to happened by chance due to sampling a nd there is no significant difference (null hypothesis retained). But if the difference is statistically significant it means certainly that the proportio

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Extracting and Analysing Plasmid DNA From E.coli

Extracting and Analysing Plasmid DNA From E.coli Introduction Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule present in all living things, and they carry genetic information which determines every characteristic a person can have. DNA contains 4 chemical units: Adenine, Guanine, Thymine and Cytosine. These 4 letters are organized to make genes which contain information to make proteins. As scientists have discovered, it is the genome (DNA sequence in a particular arrangement of the 4 letters) that makes every human unique. During the first stages of cell division, the human DNA is organized into 46 tightly coiled structures called chromosomes. As a cell divide, the chromosomes are copied over to the new cells, ensuring they receive a full copy of the genetic blueprint. Objective Isolate DNA of cheek cells Extract chromosomal DNA from strawberry Extract plasmid DNA from E.coli. General Method Collect cells Split cells open and release contents Destroy enzymes which break apart DNA Separate DNA from other cell components Precipitate DNA General Materials Solution I Solution II Solution III Tubes of various sizes according to use Proteinase K (10mg/ml) Strawberry Filter funnel DNA extraction buffer Chlorofoam LB Liquid Medium 5M NaCl 70% Ethanol 95% Ethanol Centrifuge Hot water bath Lysis Buffer DNA of Cheek Cells Collect cheek cells by rinsing mouth with saline solution Saline solution prevents cells from splitting open too soon Spin solution in a centrifuge to collect cells at the bottom of the tube Empty out the liquid, leaving the cell pellet at the bottom Add Lysis Buffer (Contains soap, salts and ions, buffers) Soap: Destroy fatty membranes that enclose cells Destroy nuclei membranes in the cells Salts and ions: Bring up osmotic pressure (pressure applied to solution needed to prevent the inflow of water) outside the cell, which helps break apart membranes Buffer: To maintain pH Breaks open cells DNA released into solution Add Proteinase K Digest contaminating proteins Degrades nucleases which attack nucleic acids Put the solution in hot water bath Enables Proteinase K to work efficiently Kill enzymes in the cytoplasm which can break apart DNA Add 5M NaCl Change polarity of solution to differentiate DNA from fats, carbohydrates and proteins DNA dissolves in ionic solutions, the rest do not Centrifuge solution Separates DNA (dissolved in clear liquid) from fats, carbohydrates and proteins (solid pellet) Transfer clear liquid (containing DNA) to new tube Add cold 95% ethanol to new tube Precipitate dissolved DNA from ionic solution since DNA is not soluble in alcohol The colder it is, the less soluble DNA (Can precipitate more) Coldness slows down enzymatic reactions which can break DNA apart Centrifuge new tube Resulting white pellet is DNA of cheek cells DNA of Strawberry Mash strawberry Add DNA extraction buffer (contains shampoo/soap NaCl) and mash Shampoo/soap: Dissolves cell membrane which is made up of lipid bilayer NaCl: Removes proteins that are stuck onto DNA Prevent proteins from precipitating along with DNA in ethanol Filter and add cold ethanol Precipitate DNA Twirl glass rod at interface between ethanol layer and slurp layer Resulting sticky mass is the plant DNA Plasmid DNA of E. coli Add solution I (contains glucose, Tris, EDTA) to prepared pellet Glucose: Increase osmotic pressure outside cells Tris: Maintain constant pH EDTA (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid): Protects DNA from enzymes which will degrade DNA Add solution II (contains alkali substances detergent) Alkali: Breaks open the cells Break down DNA into single strands Detergent: Break membrane apart Add solution III (contains acidic substances) Neutralizes pH so DNA strands can get back together as double stranded Precipitates cellular debris E. coli plasmid DNA remains in solution Add chloroform Extract DNA Centrifuge mixture Separates plasmid DNA and debris chromosomal DNA Transfer some amount of liquid into new tube Add 95% ethanol Centrifuge new mixture Purify plasmid DNA Pour away liquid and add 70% alcohol Remove remaining salts Centrifuge mixture Pour away liquid and spin the tube Resulting pellet is plasmid DNA Discussion/Extensions Why is DNA extraction important/used for: Crime and historical identification Lineage/origin identification Diagnosis of diseases Mass produce gene/protein important for treating diseases, using further DNA technology Genetic engineering Other DNA extraction methods: Anion-exchange Uses chromatography technique Nucleic acids of DNA are composed of negatively-charged phosphates Positively-charged substrate used to bind to the negatively-charged phosphates Proteins and RNA are then removed with medium-salt buffers Silica Gel Advantage: Fast, reliable, economical Uses silica-gel membrane to adsorb nucleic acids of DNA Catalysts: Chaotropic salts Buffers used in lysis helps DNA to adsorb on silica-gel membrane, and washes away metabolites and proteins Salting Remove proteins and contaminants by using high concentrations of salt Precipitates removed using centrifuge DNA recovered with alcohol Organic extraction Mix dead cells with phenol, chloroform and alcohol DNA extracted using alcohol precipitate Cesium chloride (CsCl) Mix suspended DNA with CsCl and ethidium bromide Solution centrifuged DNA extracted with isopropanol Limitations This general method of DNA isolation consists of many limitations: Inability to remove inhibitors of polymerase chain reaction Too many steps may be too time-consuming Multiple tube transfers may increase risk of contaminations by à ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€¹Ã…“outsideà ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ã‚ ¢ DNA Conclusions This simple experiment provides an introduction to the procedures that are used in modern microbiological laboratories. Other cases can get much more complex, and will involve more sophisticated methods and equipment. The extraction of DNA is the first step of many other fascinating processes, which includes the manufacturing of medicines as well as genetic engineering which alters the genes of organisms.

Friday, October 25, 2019

British War :: essays research papers

!! YOU ARE THERE !!   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The most important event in U.S. History in my opinion would be Washington’s escape from the British Army at New York. This event changed the course of U.S. History because it was the closest the movement for freedom came to being crushed.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  It all started when Washington and his army were waiting for the British on Long Island. He expected the British to launch a full frontal assault. He did not look at his flanks, and was heavily dug in. This would be where the U.S. defeated the British for good, or died trying.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Unfortunately the British did not come up the front; they instead launched a small frontal attack while sending men to the flank. Washington’s army curled up, they had no place to go, and this was the end for the United States. Somehow though the British didn’t press the attack and Washington managed to slip off the island at night without the Red Coats seeing him.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  I chose the battle of Long Island because it was where America was saved from the brink of disaster. If Washington had failed to get the Army off at night, or the British had pressed the attack, poof, no America. It may have not been the bloodiest, it may not have been the most exciting, but it certainly was the most important date in American History   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In my opinion Samual Adams was the most important man in American history. There may be a lot of men that are better known, but they all came because of the great rabble-rouser himself. Without men like Sammy there would have been no American Revolution.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In Boston Samual Adams was one of the influential people that started the Son’s of Liberty. Without them nobody would have stolen the ballast from a British ship, or raided Fort William-Mary. If those hadn’t been stolen the British would have never marched on Lexington and Concord, and the Revolutionary war would not have happened.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Maybe he was a man of coincidence, or maybe he knew what he was doing, but however you look at it Sam Adams was a big part in America gaining its independence.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

AO2/A03 How Steve Brankin manages people, finances and resources with in Asidua Essay

AO2/A03 How Steve Brankin manages people, finances and resources with in Asidua In Asidua the management of people, finances and resources under Steve are central to business success. He undertakes this huge managerial task in a number of ways. Interviewing Steve gave me a great insight into these methods. Managing People Recruitment, Retention and Training of Employees. Employees in Asidua have to go through a short listing process and a job interview. Jobs are advertised on their website, kike the example in appendix 1 showing the job vacancy for an â€Å"Experience NET Designer†. Steve will also make sure that this job is advertised properly so people capable of doing the job can apply. Another method of recruitment overseen by Steve is the advertisements of job vacancies at career fairs for example the UUJ Engineering and IT Careers Fair which is held at Jordanstown University. (See appendix 2) at this event Asidua meet prospective graduates and placements to discuss future opportunities with Asidua. This is an excellent way of recruitment as Steve can see the level of employees that have just come out of higher education. This fair at Jordanstown is the perfect place for this as it would appeal to a number of high performing graduates. Advertising in relevant places for example, Universities and schools. On the Asidua website they offer graduates at Queen’s a scholarship worth up to  £25,000, which includes at least eight weeks paid summer work between each academic year, a guaranteed paid industrial placement in year three and after completion of industrial placement, the opportunity for paid part-time work during the academic year. (See appendix 3) This creates a positive corporate image for Asidua as it show they invest in education and Asidua believe it is important. It also means Steve can employ people straight out of university as they will understand Asidua’s aims and the graduates will be trained through the scholarship. Allocation roles and responsibilities to all levels of employees After advertising these posts, Steve starts the application process. For every job within Asidua completes a Job Description, Person Specification and a Job Outline, all these are part of the application process. Applicants use these to see whether they are suitable for the job, and whether certain qualities are met by the applicants. (See appendix 4 application form) Looking at the application it shows that employees within Asidua have high level of expertise and experience due to the large amount of space left on the form for information. The application form specifically asks about the applications’ personal interests professional organisations they have been involved in and it also asks them to mention skills they have gained. For all these sections there is a large box to fill out, this shows us that Steve is looking for people that have high expertise and also that they have an interest or a passion for something. This large amount of information is an efficient way of short-listing people suitable for the job in question. The applicant Curriculum Vitae is also further help in the application process. The Job Description shows the Job Outline and Personal Specification for an Experienced NET Developer in Asidua. You can download these from the Asidua website and they provide lots of information for the applicant. Looking at the Job Description it clearly shows that a lot is expected of the person applying. Asidua offer lots of employment benefits, for example a 5% bonus per annum, pension scheme, annual leave, salary sacrifice scheme (childcare vouchers), flexible working, sick absence, death in service and health insurance. These working conditions are very high are going to make staff very motivated and this is why Steve has these in place, and this is why in March 2011 Asidua became the first employer to be shortlisted twice for the prestigious University of Ulster Placement Employers of the Year Award. (See appendix 6) Being awarded this shows Steve strong managerial skills. Form looking at the Job Description it is clear that Steve isn’t just interested in their qualifications he pays great attention to their personal attributes, requiring employees to be open-minded, flexible, have good communication skills and being able to work as part of a team. This shows that Steve wants his employee’s qualities to create a very effective and profitable work force. Motivating and developing staff Once all this criteria has been met, it is very important that Steve keeps the motivating of staff at high levels. This is mainly done by investing in employee’s development at Asidua, making sure that they are all keeping strong communication to maintain morale. Methods of training that Mr Brankin will use will encourage employees to update their regular skills in a regular basis which will lead them to enhancing their overall performance. There are several motivational theories that we can look at. One of them is Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Elton Mayo’s Theory. (See appendix 7 and 8) Mr Brankin doesn’t plan to motivate his staff under these theories, Human Resources will manage these. However many of the policies in these two theories may been shown, as long as they are relevant to Asidua when situations arise. By looking at these theories we can see how Steve as put them into practice in Asidua in many different ways. Strong communication within Asidua are how informal events such as their breakfast club, sports events and Christmas dinners. Employees will feel a sense of community when they are a part of these things. This shows that Mr Brankin and the Human Resources Department are using the correct methods similar to Elton Mayo’s theory, which clearly focuses on working conditions that are not affecting employee’s motivation. It is the employee’s interaction that gives them a sense of recognition. Setting clear objectives and receiving feedback A manager such as Steve Brankin uses close supervision, carefully dictating how his employees complete their jobs. The understanding that employees dislike work and responsibility and the only reason they are there is for the financial reward. Giving employees praise is a positive and effective  way to get employees working. Asidua do this by appraisal/performance management schemes. This enables objectives and training needs to be agreed at the start of the performance review cycle and reviewed as appropriate in the year. Steve has said in our questionnaire that feedback is an ongoing basis, and it is formally documented at the mid way point and at the end of the cycle. Another way Asidua set objectives is by setting task specifically suited to the employees skills, knowledge and experience, by doing this employees within Asidua will be given task that they are interested in and it means they will be completed to the best of the persons abilities. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs has been ignored in Asidua as Steve Brankin uses it to look at the management in Asidua. He uses this theory as it has the idea that needs are essential for employee’s motivation. Physical of basis needs are met within Asidua with, salary, shelter and warmth. The second main need is security, which employees within Asidua will also feel as they will be working in great conditions and the employees have job stability. Mr Brankin shows employees that the business is under his management and proves that Asidua are investing in their employee’s long-term employment. Staff development Staff development is very important in Asidua; this is because of employee’s long-term employment, which creates a sense of community within the business. Employee’s relationship is excellent in Asidua as they are all well known and this can lead to high levels of motivation. The cost of recruitment is lowered because of this as there are a lot of stages that need to be taken into consideration for example short-listing. So the better developed Asidua’s staff are the less employment is needed to replace past employees. Resolving conflict and maintaining morale Sense of belonging is important in Asidua. Steve puts a large emphasis on  the management style, the â€Å"open door† policy. This means that employees can openly and freely talk about their problems or concerns they may have or that may arise between employees, but all these issues can be resolved through training that managers receive to deal with these problems. Asidua have a Grievance and Harassment policy, this is where employees can report issues more formally. Opportunities with Asidua for employees to make decisions meet Maslow’s Hierarchy about self-esteem. Steve’s democratic management style means that this is being strongly met. Also employee’s decisions are listened to and not just thrown away. An example of this are the weekly meetings held in Asidua with Asidua with Mr Brankin and his employees. They also have the opportunity to feedback online, with different online forums. Employee’s opinions are valued, and they are a major part of the decision making process. Looking at how employees within Asidua are given freedom to carry out their own ideas, this shows that there is an extensive amount of training provided for the employees wanting to carry out their own projects or to press into the area that interest them the most. This management allows employees to keep their morale high as they have the freedom at work to do the things that interest them. Managing finance Steve’s management of finance is very important, just like any other management in Asidua it is clearly a very important factor of the whole business. Money that the business has and earns has to be distributed correctly thought out all the departments within Asidua. Without the correct finance management Asidua go into bankruptcy which is something Steve doesn’t want to happen to his company. When Steve is managing finance, decision making is crucial, the financial systems used within Asidua helping him make these important decisions. Forecasting Forecasting gives Asidua a way to manage its finances in a way that they can see future revenues and expenditures. It looks at three main sections: Receipts which Asidua expect to receive from sales. The payments of Asidua such as monthly costs including the rent and rates of their main business sites The net in/out amount of cash being overall difference between receipts and payments given an indication of how much money id left over by the end of the month. All this is vital to Steve so he can make sure any expected cash surpluses are used effectively and can also predict any future problems. Mr Brankin can then work to fix the problem so that they don’t get forced into liquidation. This method of forecasting means that business are able to evaluate any liabilities which need to be met and use the budgets from the facilitate the budget seen from this to facilitate Asidua in setting targets and then been able to measure performance against this by looking at variances which may arise in forecasting Steve can make important strategic decisions if from looking at Asidua’s cash flow forecast it can be seen that their assets will not be able to meet liabilities this will cause Steve to make immediate action showing this method is extremely useful for him in the financial decision making process. Cash flow management Cash flow statements will similarly be used this Mr Brankin to assist in this decision making process. This cash flow statement is the actual record of receipts and payments in the business as opposed to those which are forecasted the shows the actual journeys the cash has gone through in Asidua overtime and will be used by Steve to evaluate and compare these actual receipts and payments from the business with those forecasted in the cash flow forecast. It similarly uses a form of budget in Asidua as this record of cash flow in Asidua will allow Mr Brankin to plan any future cash flow requirements and  allow him to make sure cash surpluses are used affectively. Like forecasting if cash flow is not managed effectively the business could go into administration. Steve will also use profit and loss accounts to manage finance. Profit and loss accounts are basically a summary of the business is transaction over a given period of time normally 12 months deduction the total expenditure from the total income. It is different from cash flow statement and forecasting in the way that is produced primarily for business purposes to show Asidua’s stakeholders and potential partners in Asidua. This information is obtained by HM Revenue and Customs to solve out taxation. This account also give Steve a way to look at the business’ performance monitoring whether Asidua’s actual performance is in correspondence with budgets. Financial decision making this is similar to profit and loss accounts as it shows the businesses liabilities and assets in balance sheets. These are different as they show the value of Asidua on a particular day, the idea of this is to make sure that every day thing is balanced with Asidua. This means it must be updated constantly. However it is a brilliant method of finance management adopted by Steve Brankin. Making day-to-day financial decisions is very important. Profits and break even analysis. Giving advice on capital investment There are many different financial methods which Steve has not adopted. One of these is break even analysis. Break even is when Asidua’s total revenue is equal to their total cost, by known the point these two meet is very important for Steve as he can aim to meet this break even point. This is the number of items which have to be sold to make a profit. It can also be used to avoid making a loss. This is because any amount of product sold under this point would mean that there is a loss made and cost would not be covered. There is a margin of safety within break even analysis; this is very useful as it shows the difference between the number of goods Asidua would have sold between the break even point and the selected level of activity. This  is very practical for Asidua as it monitors how they are making a profit. When managing finance the decision of capital investment is also very important. Mr Brankin must invest time into looking at this as capital is very important factor of production. When Steve decides whether or not to invest capital into Asidua a number of factors must be thought of. For example when Steve puts forward the business plans to continue investment in Northern Ireland’s young talent, which they got three new scholars to join Asidua through their scholarship program. Those participating in the program had to go through serious high levels of application. This has its benefits as coming from this investment into the support of new IT and engineering student; this will lead Asidua to high profit and success great than the initial cost of the program. Liaising with outside agencies e.g. Inland Revenue Steve makes sure that Asidua liaises with several companies within Asidua; this is mainly done for financial reasons. Asidua have links with Inland Revenue, they bring together the direct taxes and other duties of the business. It is important that areas for example finance is handled by specialists. The investment with Inland Revenue is very effective as they provide Steve with professional financial support. Managing other resources. Stave is in charge of the information systems within in Asidua. These are crucial for a business such as Asidua to run smoothly. Information systems It is evident that Asidua and Steve use information systems and are heavily involved in them. As a company that specialise in computers they used computer aided design to manage most of their information and capture diagrams. Desktop publishing is also used in Asidua to manage information. This is used in lots of businesses and is the software to create publication documents on a computer. This allows large amounts of books to be published  and this method enhances Steve’s managerial skills for information. Linux operating systems is also used within Asidua. This operating system can be installed on a wide variety of computer devices including mobile phones. This shows that this operating system is very effective and Steve can use it in many ways. Maintenance and renewal assets Asidua’s website is one of their assets as it allows their stakeholders and those within Asidua to find out about the business, the employees, projects under consideration and events. This is an excellent way to promote the business as this is based on the high quality of the website and it is important for the business’s image. Apart from Asidua’s employees having the benefit of being able to be updated via Asidua’s public web page, the business also have an intranet system in place. This system is Asidua’s private network created for employees which enables them to find items in their website easier. This has its benefits as it motivates employees and improves morale; this asset provided by Asidua must be renewed and updated regularly under Steve’s management for success.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Discuss the significance of seemingly Essay

Discuss the significance of seemingly â€Å"unrealistic† or apparently implausible characters, places or events in literature you have studied.  Unrealistic or implausible characters are often used literature to aid in transmitting the author’s intention and are usually of crucial conceptual significance, this is to say, that they are vital in the development of ideas that the author wants to express. Two of the forms that the writer might choose to give his implausible character are, for example, a glaring contrast with other characters in order to convey a moral message by means of conflict, or the personification of an abstract and specific human quality in order to symbolically express his views about that given value. These devices can be observed in Brave New World by Aldous Huxley, in the character of the Savage, and in Alekos from Captain Corelli’s Mandolin by Louis de Bernià ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½res respectively. In Brave New World, the Savage is the main means of the author to create a clash with the Utopia portrayed: since absolutely everyone in the new society is conditioned to be entirely happy with it, it is only a foreigner to those ideals who can confront them. This is obvious from Chapter XVII in which John and Mustapha Mond have an intense discussion about the nature of their whole world, passage that sums up and develops all of the main ideas exposed in the preceding chapters and acts as a climax too. Judging from the content of the ideological battle portrayed we may say the Aldous Huxley’s intention was to convey a moral message, a warning to what uncontrolled human development may produce: a degenerated society according to our standards (note that during the novel Huxley’s tone when describing the world is largely subjective and tilted towards our opinion of their moral and social values, reinforcing the argument of Huxley’s intention) and ultimately the lack of choice between insanity and sanity, as indicated in the suicide of the Savage. It is important to say that the romantic and idealistic role played by John is that of greatest proximity to our common beliefs and using this device Huxley desires to stress the correctness of our morality and the â€Å"immorality† of theirs as seen in the emotive ending of chapter XVII: † ‘All right, then,’ said the Savage defiantly, ‘I’m claiming the right to be unhappy.’  Ã¢â‚¬ËœNot to mention the right to grow old and ugly and impotent; the right to have syphilis and cancer (†¦) ‘I claim them all,’ said the Savage at last.†Ã‚  The reader feels deeply identified with John in this passage, mainly because of his rebellious and courageous tone, whereas Mustapha Mond represents domination and lack of freedom; Huxley uses the common device of the conflict between seemingly oppressed individuals and the organized, cold and analytical oppressor, usually an institution, in a subjective manner, thereby touching the inner fibres of human idealism for freedom and making the reader be in the part of the Savage. In this level the Savage should be the most familiar and realist character of them all, and is probably the level at which Huxley worked more in his development of the message, yet an implausibility in th e situation is found in an underlying plane: the philosophical training of the Savage. It is hardly believable that a person that has only read Shakespeare in his life and has had no real education in order to understand literature’s intentions as such and therefore the matters of human nature, consciousness, life, etc., can hold such an elevated discussion, and finally, in the eyes of the reader as portrayed by Huxley, win the argument, with a man as thoroughly educated as Mustapha Mond. Given the many other incongruencies and small mistakes found in the novel (which have been recognised by Huxley himself) it seems that this implausibility was not deliberately planned in order to convey some message, but was an inevitable result of the author’s method of exposing the central argument. It may be however that this is a device used to transmit an opinion about human nature and its inherent spiritual tendencies to romantic values and actual morals (as these cannot be genetic or even so mental due to the genetic engineering and the conditioning suffered by the Alphas themselves which are those who show the relative desire for these). Even though the Savage has lacked the sufficient instruction to uphold such a discussion, â€Å"human sprit†, which is in every case expressed through the mind, (this would be why castes lower than Alphas cannot express this spirit) tells him certain things that are right and wrong which are subsequently the themes of discussion with Mustapha Mond. However this interpretation seems somewhat to forced and does not connect completely well with Huxley’s pessimistic view of the future evident in the ending, as the concept of the inherent quality for freedom in human spirit has something of an optimistic connotation.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Causes of the Great Depression essays

Causes of the Great Depression essays The Great Depression was the worst economic slump ever in U.S. history, and one that spread to virtually the entire industrialized world. The depression began in late 1929 and lasted for about a decade. Many factors played a role in bringing about the depression; however, the main cause for the Great Depression was the combination of the greatly unequal distribution of wealth throughout the 1920's. Another reasons for the stock market crash was caused Farmers continued to produce more and more food due to technological advances likes the tractor. As production grew farm prices dropped. It was simply a matter of supply and demand. Also a big drought turned that portion of America into what was called "The Dustbowl." The theory was that an indicator of money and easy credit stimulated the economy. In 1927, the Federal Reserve Board further inflated the currency by creating several more billion dollars. People went into debt, and the prices of real estate and stocks skyrocketed. The policies pursued by Coolidge made the later stock market crash inevitable and depression inescapable. Also, there was an uneven trade going on between the U.S. and the rest of the world. There were more exports than there were imports. This meant that the U.S. was loosing money and goods other than receiving. ...

Monday, October 21, 2019

Homosexuality Research Essays - Behavior, Human Behavior, Gesture

Homosexuality Research Essays - Behavior, Human Behavior, Gesture Homosexuality Research Over the past decade the author has been presenting seminars, speeches and workshops around the United States on the subject of international behavior. This book is the result of accumulation of more than ten years of research on the subject and it includes research on his travels to England, Germany, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines. All this reinforced a conviction that gestures are powerful communicators used by people all over the world. The purpose of this book is to let people know how powerful gestures can be when used correctly or incorrectly. He also wants you to know how a gesture can mean one thing here and another thing somewhere else, something as simple as a wave good bye, could get you into a lot of trouble in another country. This book was broken down into seven chapters: Chapter 1, illustrated with numerous examples, is that not only are gestures and body language powerful communicators, but different cultures use gestures and body language in dramatically different ways. Chapter 2 discusses the most popular gestures found around the world, beginning with how we greet each other. Shaking hand is not the universal greeting. In fact, there are at least a half-dozen other social greetings - even different ways of shaking hands. This chapter also deals with farewells, beckoning, insulting, touching and other types of gestures. Chapter 3 gets into the special types of gestures such as, American Sign Language, Tai Chi, flirting & kissing. Chapter 4 is designed to help you learn or trace a particular gesture, using scores of drawings. Chapter 5 describes what the author calls the ultimate gesture, which is simply the smile. It is rarely misunderstood, scientist believe this particular gesture releases chemicals in the brain called endorphins into the system that create a mild feeling of euphoria. It also may help you slip out of the prickliest or difficult situation's world wide. Chapter 6 is an important list of gestures to keep in mind. It is compiled of 20 gestures that can help you separate right from rude, and rude from crude. Chapter 7 is a listing of country-by-country common gestures and body languages. They group the countries by major geographic region. The organization of the book was a combination of narrative and topical. The basic point of view of the entire book was that if you are planning to leave the United States and travel to another country, you better either keep your hands in you pockets at all times or know the proper gesture for the country you intend on visiting. I would like to site some examples. An American teenager was hitchhiking in Nigeria. A carload of locals passed him. The car screeched to a halt. The locals jumped out and promptly roughed up the teenage visitor. Why? Because in Nigeria, the gesture commonly used in America for hitchhiking (thumb extended upward) is considered a very rude signal. An American couple on an auto tour in Australia was stopped by a police officer in Sydney for failing to signal before turning. Since they were tourists the officer gave them only a friendly warning. Relieved, the American man responded with a smile and the thumbs-up sign. The police officer became enraged, ordered the couple out of the car, called a backup, searched the car, and finally gave the driver an expensive ticket. Later, back in their hotel and recounting their experience, the tourist learned that in Australia the thumbs-up gesture means screw you! As you can see this book has a humorous, but yet serious overtone. It covers important aspects of body languages & gestures in society which is serious stuff, that has a very strong impact on all that come in contact with you. Yet the author is able to express it in a comical nature. I enjoyed the book immensely. There are many ways the ideas in this book can be related to sociology. In fact the whole book is directly related to the subject of sociology especially the culture aspect of it. I will explain in the following paragraphs. Anthologists divide our actions and gestures into three broad categories: instinctive, coded and acquired. Instinctive gestures are those we do almost unconsciously. An example would be when we are suddenly shocked or surprised,

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Rainbow Fire Halloween Jack-o-Lantern

Rainbow Fire Halloween Jack-o-Lantern Create a spectacular multicolored fire pumpkin for Halloween! This rainbow fire jack-o-lantern is easy to make.   Rainbow Fire Pumpkin Materials You only need a few basic materials for this project. The hand sanitizer contains alcohol, which is flammable, but self-extinguishes due to the water in the product. The boric acid or borax provides additional color to the flames. Carved Halloween jack-o-lantern (use a real pumpkin - plastic will melt!)Hand sanitizerBoric acid or borax What You Do Smear hand sanitizer all over the outside and inside of the jack-o-lantern.Dust the pumpkin with boric acid or borax. You dont need very much to achieve a nice colored effect. Just a light sprinkling will suffice,Ignite the jack-o-lantern.The flame goes out on its own fairly quickly as the alcohol in the hand sanitizer gets used up, leaving you with water. How It Works Boric acid or borax (either works) emit a green light when heated in a flame. The jack-o-lantern gives off a multicolored fire because you have the natural blue of the alcohol flame from the hand sanitizer, the green from the boric acid, orange light coming through the carved pumpkin, plus other colors from where the pumpkin juice mixes with the flame. The pumpkin flesh contains sodium, which imparts a yellow color to the fire. Tips and Safety You dont have to use boric acid or borax. Try other flame colorants for a different color blend.This is a fire project, so adult supervision is required.Be sure to perform this project on a fire-safe surface.You can extinguish the flame at any time by blowing it out.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Quantitative Methods and Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Quantitative Methods and Analysis - Essay Example Particular demographic information includes employees’ gender, age group, department, position, and length of tenure with the company. Job satisfaction and satisfaction with the benefits received are measured using a Likert-type scale from 1 to 7, with 1 representing a â€Å"Least Satisfied† measure while 7 represents a â€Å"Most Satisfied† measure. Employee gender is either male or female; age group was divided into three, with those belonging to age 16 to 21, 22 to 49, and 50 to 65. Employees were classified according to three possible departments: Human Resources, Information Technology, and Administration; they were classified as either hourly employees who were eligible for overtime pay, or salaried employees who were not eligible for overtime pay. Their tenure with the company was also noted in the database and subdivided into three levels: less than two years, 2 to 5 years, and more than 5 years. In today’s day and age, statistics finds more and mo re uses in the workplace. For example, statistics is used to find the demographic distribution of employees in the workplace (Black, 2010). Those working in the Quality Control department use statistics to determine the products that are of good enough quality to be distributed to the market. Managers use statistics to determine employee performance and operational costs and values. Employees use statistics to keep track of their performance level too, knowing very well that such figures may mean the difference between promotion and service termination (Anderson, Sweeney, & Williams, 2009). Any organization that uses appropriate and correctly interpreted statistics will truly benefit in providing a more scientific venue for their decision making needs. With the use of statistics, problems may be identified early on, and corrected as necessary (Rubin, 2009). Moreover, statistics also provides evidence and actual proof of where an organization may focus its resources, whether in the f orm of physical or human capital. As the rest of this report will illustrate, statistics may be used to determine the thoughts and feelings of an organization’s members. This is very crucial because human resource and the satisfaction and proper treatment of employees should be a major concern for any organization (Cook, 2008). In placing the focus on the information provided by the database, it was found that 61% of the surveyed employees were male and 39% were female. These figures indicate that while females have long been in the employed sector, employees are still predominantly male. Among male employees, 54% have been with the company less than two years, 32% have been with the company between two to five years, and 14% have been with the company more than five years. Among female employees, 21% have been with the company less than two years, 58% have been with the company between two to five years, and 21% have been with the company more than five years. These statisti cs show that female employees are more loyal career-wise because they tend to stay with their company for a longer period of time. When it comes to extrinsic job satisfaction, males and female tend to be similarly satisfied with a mean value of 5.4 for both genders. This value seems to translate to overall job satisfaction as there is a 41% chance that an employee’s overall job satisfaction level is at least 5.2. When classified according to department, majority of the employees were in

Friday, October 18, 2019

Crisis Mapping Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Crisis Mapping - Research Paper Example ans then use this information to determine localities where their help is needed (Goolsby, Social media as crisis platform: The future of community maps/crisis maps.). In the year 2011, East Japan experienced an earthquake and Tsunami, which claimed many live, destroyed properties and disabled others. It was a situation, which needed humanitarian assistances (Goolsby and Gao). The openstreemap community launched a crisis map hours after the disaster occurred. The humanitarian team was able to identify areas facing particular types of problems and respond appropriately. The Ushahidi project, enabled by Google maps, facilitated real time distress calls and, therefore, was an invaluable resource for humanitarians. The earthquake, which struck the Christ church in New Zealand in 2010, is another disaster occurrence whose situation eased by the help of crisis mapping (Munro and Meier). Given the loss of lives and injuries experienced by the victims, Crowd source, crisis map provided by Google maps and Ushahidi acted in helping organizations and local people to identify people who needed help. The Libya crisis map project was as a response to the U.N’s request, which was in a bid to ease coordination of the required humanitarian affairs. Although the crisis map operated on a delayed 24 hours for information security purposes, it was able to update on evacuation, refugee’s movements, street fights, and military actions (Christopher). The information enabled for appropriate reaction by volunteers in helping the victims. Conclusively, Crisis mapping has helped in disaster management in the most convenient

Film review fido Movie Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Film fido - Movie Review Example I enjoyed the film due to its unpredictability nature. It has a lot of suspense in it, and the overall movie itself is interesting (humorous). For instance, humor exists when the government comes up with a remote control system of switching off and controlling the zombies (Currie). The major characters of the film are Timmy, Fido, and Hellen. Timmy is a malicious and inhuman character. She kills the zombified next-door neighbor; an act that causes the outbreak whereby many people within the area turn into zombies. The minor characters include Cindy Bottoms, Jonathan Bottoms, Theopolis, and many others (Currie). Generally, the major characters are associated with an anti-societal practice of supporting the zombie practices. The minor characters, on the other hand, are against the infestation of the society by the zombies. The minor characters influence and support the major characters by going against their plans and wishes, thus completing the plot of the film. Action is one of the main techniques that have been used in the movie. It is portrayed when Fido is killing the next-door neighbor (Currie). The technique ensures that the movie maintains its nature, that is, the horror character in it. It also ensures that the plot of the movie is maintained, thus enhancing the theme of the movie. Finally, it depicts the editor’s ability of using various movie techniques and picture and image editing styles. The film is based on a story. It has fulfilled and portrayed the literary work successfully using certain devices such as flashbacks, contrast, and

Thursday, October 17, 2019

One problem in our comunity ( miami) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

One problem in our comunity ( miami) - Essay Example Most of the work remains for improvement of conditions that teens pass through providing them with education and information regarding relationships and sexuality and improve reproductive and sexual health services (David, 2012) In Miami, local live births to mothers of age eighteen and under explained for eight percent of the entire births. Miami birth rates compared to teen girls dropped from 85 per one thousand to 51 in 2011. Both statewide and nationally, the sharpest decreases in the rates of teen births were noted for black teenagers. The rate of state births for black teenagers is dropped to 26% from the previous years. In spite of declines, Miami rates of birth in 2011 to mothers of age 18 years and below continue to increase in percentage of teenager births to black mothers 12% than the ratio to white mothers 6%. The Hispanic teen birth rates have not reflected the decline in the general birth rates. Miami birth rates for this group of teenagers have increased by 9% from 1991 ( The members of Miami should show awareness of the growing rate of teen pregnancy in high schools. The other goal is expressing need for a plan towards the reduction of teen pregnancy prevalence. Thirdly, is the development and implementation of the plan to reduce these pregnancies? Fourthly is the evaluation of success in meeting the planned goals and objectives. Lastly, is reporting teen pregnancy reduction rate. Determine: evaluate the following: teen pregnancy in Miami for the last two years; community demographics; attitudes towards teenager mothers and their young ones; programs in schools that work towards the welfare of the teen mothers; knowledge on sexuality and sex; attitude of the community on sex and effects of religious education of sex. Evaluation information should be used in the establishment of appropriate intervention. Performance: collect

Crime mapping Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Crime mapping - Essay Example Clustering is indicated by the nearest neighbour index (NNI) and the NNI value from the table are 0.5746, 0.4679 and 0.4838 for shift 1, shift 2 and shift 3 respectively. An NNI value of 1 indicates random clustering and therefore the above NNI values are less than 1 and this indicates clustering of occurring offences. The P values for the three shifts is p value = 0.0001 and because this value is less than 0.05 then the clustering of occurring offences are statistically significant. From the table shift two has NNI value 0.4679 and a standard deviation distance value of 2887.5 and this is the lowest NNI value meaning that this shift is more clustered than all the other shifts, shift 1 has the highest NNI value of 0.5746 and a standard deviation distance value of 3039 meaning that this shift is less clustered. Shift three has a median NNI value of 0.4838 and a standard deviation distance value of 3104.7. Shift two has the lowest NNI value and this is an indication that given that shift two time is from16Hours to 24Hours there are less police officers and security agents available during this time of the day and therefore higher clustering of occurring offences. Shift one has a NNI value of 0.5746 which is statistically significant at 0.05 level of tests and this is the highest NNI value meaning that there is less clustering of occurring offences, this shift time is from 9 hours to 15 hours and during this time of the day more police officers and security agents are available and therefore less clustering of occurring offences. Shift three has a median value of NNI and this means that this shift has less clustering of occurring offences than shift two but higher clustering of occurring offences than shift one. This means that during shift three we have higher clustering of occurring offences than shift one but less clustering of occurring offences than shift two. From the above discussion it is evident that during the first shift which is from

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Zimbabwe Economy and International Relations Essay

Zimbabwe Economy and International Relations - Essay Example In February 2000, the government’s draft constitution was rejected by the majority of voters representing the first electoral challenge to the hegemonic and increasingly authoritarian rule of President Robert Mugabe and his ruling nationalist Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front Zanu(PF) party’s twenty-year rule (Amanda & Raftopoulos 2003:10). This culminated in a wave of war veteran-led farm invasions that saw many white commercial farmers losing their farms in the violence that ensued. Thus, Zimbabwe’s economy mainly being agro-based, the farm invasions precipitated the deepening economic decline which resulted in the disintegration of commercial farming. This also led to the decline in tourism as a result of the country’s negative publicity, major losses in foreign currency earnings, a fall in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of 24 percent and a significant rise in arrears of Zimbabwe’s foreign debt of US$3.4, the withdrawal of Western Aid and substantial loss of foreign investment, widespread business losses, drastic fall of the Zimbabwean dollar, crippling fuel shortages and a severe national shortage of food threatening to affect Zimbabwe’s estimated population of 13 million.( Amanda & Raftopoulos 2003). Regardless of the negative publicity, Zimbabwe still maintains embassies in many countries across the world and more than sixty-six countries are represented in Harare, Zimbabwe’s capital city. It is also a member of various regional and international groupings such as the African Development Bank, The World Trade Organization, Southern African Development Community (SADC), Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA).

Crime mapping Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Crime mapping - Essay Example Clustering is indicated by the nearest neighbour index (NNI) and the NNI value from the table are 0.5746, 0.4679 and 0.4838 for shift 1, shift 2 and shift 3 respectively. An NNI value of 1 indicates random clustering and therefore the above NNI values are less than 1 and this indicates clustering of occurring offences. The P values for the three shifts is p value = 0.0001 and because this value is less than 0.05 then the clustering of occurring offences are statistically significant. From the table shift two has NNI value 0.4679 and a standard deviation distance value of 2887.5 and this is the lowest NNI value meaning that this shift is more clustered than all the other shifts, shift 1 has the highest NNI value of 0.5746 and a standard deviation distance value of 3039 meaning that this shift is less clustered. Shift three has a median NNI value of 0.4838 and a standard deviation distance value of 3104.7. Shift two has the lowest NNI value and this is an indication that given that shift two time is from16Hours to 24Hours there are less police officers and security agents available during this time of the day and therefore higher clustering of occurring offences. Shift one has a NNI value of 0.5746 which is statistically significant at 0.05 level of tests and this is the highest NNI value meaning that there is less clustering of occurring offences, this shift time is from 9 hours to 15 hours and during this time of the day more police officers and security agents are available and therefore less clustering of occurring offences. Shift three has a median value of NNI and this means that this shift has less clustering of occurring offences than shift two but higher clustering of occurring offences than shift one. This means that during shift three we have higher clustering of occurring offences than shift one but less clustering of occurring offences than shift two. From the above discussion it is evident that during the first shift which is from

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

View of Class Essay Example for Free

View of Class Essay Karl Marx’s view of class as exposed in his Communist Manifesto suggests firstly the existence of two distinct classes with irreconcilable differences. These are the proletarian and the bourgeoisie. The proletarian or proletariat was initially a derogatory term used for people who had no other wealth aside from their children. Marx’s sociological take on the term refers it to the working class. True to its derogatory origin, the proletariat is the class in society that does not own the means of production (Martin, 1998). In short, they are those who are employed to do work and get paid by salaries. The bourgeoisie or capitalist is a term to connote the owning class. They are considered the upper class of society who owns the means of production. They are the merchants, landowners, and other capitalists. Marx’s theory in class revolves around the interactions between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie and the inevitable consequences thereof. Marx argued that the bourgeoisie constantly exploits the proletariat. Since the workers do not own any means of production like their own farm or business, they must seek employment from the bourgeoisie in order to survive. They are hired by capitalists to work on making goods or providing services. These fruits of production then become the property of the capitalist, who sells them and gets a certain amount of money in exchange. Some of the money earned from the selling of the products or services is used to pay the workers wages, while the rest called surplus value is used to pay for other expenses of the capitalist and his profits. This gives the capitalist the ability to earn money out of work done by his employees with very minimal effort on his part (Martin, 1998). Since obviously, new wealth or profit was created through work done by the employees; the capitalist gained wealth or an excess of wealth which he did not work for. If that happened, then that means that other people, that is the laborers did not receive the full wealth which they should be receiving as just compensation for the work they did. In other words, the workers were exploited by the capitalists. On the other hand, Scott and Leonhardt (2005) argued that society cannot actually have the distinct perception of classes that is proposed in Marxist doctrine. They base this on the fact that people regardless of race or social stature are experiencing luxuries that were not as equally distributed just a few decades ago. Marxist principle usually claimed that the normal, everyday worker is of an inferior class to the capitalist. This principle was based on external markers that connote poverty in one and wealth in the other. Scott and Leonhardt’s article makes an attack on the markers of such a principle, arguing that at present, it has become very difficult to know a person’s class from the color of his skin or the gods they worship, much less on the clothes they wear or whether they’re employed or are running heir own business. However, the article itself does not belittle the concept of distinct classes and in fact moves on to argue that class is actually still a very powerful factor in society. What the article simply argues is that this difference in classes can no longer be seen in Marx’s idea of proletariat – bourgeoisie dynamics but has transferred to other aspects such as meritocracy, where a man who starts out poor can actually strike it rich if he had what it takes. It is my stand to agree with Scott and Leonhardt that the concept of class has shifted into from hereditary wealth to the idea of meritocracy. On the first level of argumentation, I say that the assumption of untouchability of the upper class no longer applies today, where big companies such as Enron can be brought to its knees by the public and where several big business tycoons such as Bernard Ebbers of Worldcom can actually be put behind bars for a good long time. This means that both worker and capitalist stand on equal footing where the law is concerned which implies that the supposed unfair, overwhelming power that big companies hold over its employees has been reduced to a memory. On the second level of argumentation, I believe that meritocracy has transcended barriers between countries and provided an avenue by which worth is determined by what a person can do rather than what his heritage is. The first support to this is the advent of public corporations. These entities build an administrative base that is dependent on meritocracy. A public corporation is owned by all the people who invest in it which can be considered as capitalists, but the top notch directors that they hire don’t need to be stockholders, nor do these executives get hired because they are relatives of the shareholders. More so they get hired because their credentials, from educational background to previous work experiences, says that they can get the job done better than anyone who has money in the company, and that if they should be handsomely compensated if they are expected to work for that particular company. The top CEOs’ incomes usually surpass the lot of a public corporation’s investors. I disagree with Marx’s portrayal of class and class struggle on two levels. The first level is that workers have at present various protections against exploitation by their employers. Labor unions lobby for progressive compensation based on the company’s own profits. This means that laborers today are actually getting their wages based on their company’s progress. The more profits they bring in, the better leverage their union has in negotiating wage increases. On the second level, even today’s capitalists recognize the importance of obtaining and maintaining an efficient labor force. Corporations consistently compete for worker bases in the country and abroad, trying to outdo each other with better benefits, more convenient working conditions, and higher salaries. This indicates that the capitalist can no longer be viewed as the laborers’ enemy. Rather, quality labor itself has become the product of laborers that makes them capitalists in their own right, since the demand for quality labor has become so that capitalists are willing to purchase their labor at their price. In conclusion, class is a concept that has evolved through the years. Situations that may have been applicable during Marx’s time may no longer be effectively used to describe what is apparent in today’s economic world. We must reflect on the value of labor today and see our own worth that for us to market, making us all equitably equipped for life’s challenges ahead. Sources: Martin, Malia. (1998). The Communist Manifest of Marx and Engels. New York: Penguin group. Scott, Janny Leonhardt, David (2005). Shadowy Lines That Still Divide. Retrieved May 6, 2007 from New York Times Website: http://www. nytimes. com/2005/05/15/national/class/OVERVIEW-FINAL. html? ex=1273809600en=2fb756e388191419ei=5088partner=rssnytemc=rss

Monday, October 14, 2019

Gold Marilyn Monroe Andy Warhol

Gold Marilyn Monroe Andy Warhol The colors used are outstanding whereby he used gold color to form the background and surrounds of the face. I love the way Warhol used the colors to give and outstanding piece of art. The face is the only image on the massive canvas platform (611 ÂÂ ¼ X 57 (211.4 x 144.7 cm)). Warhol Canvas, Silkscreen ink are the main materials used in the painting. Warhol painted the image on the canvas to bring out an actual sensation or display of Marilyn Monroe; a goddess of sensuality. The most extraordinary feature of Andy Warhols legendary painting of Marilyn Monroes face is how he forms his version of her. The face of Marilyn Monroe is very familiar and almost everyone knows how she looks like. Warhol succeeded wholly in conceptualizing a famous face and recreating it as par his own fashion. Such a piece of work is exceptional and for generations it will make the basis for upcoming painters. The Gold Marilyn Monroe painting is a religious painting. Her face is depicted as a religious icon relating to the Christian history. The painter exhibited her as a matyr, someone who is adored or worshiped just like Mary mother of Jesus Christ. The gold Marilyn painting undermines the peculiarity between image and reality. The painting exists on its own simulacrum. The gold Marilyn is an exclusive sign among many; a symbol spotting and mirroring other signs in a non-ending motion. . The wise use of colors represents the life that Marilyn led in public. For in stance, she led a glamorous life spiced with parties, celebrities and wealth. There are many symbols in the painting for instance, the whole picture is a sex symbol. Colors have been used cleverly by the artist to produce and display different meanings and symbols. The golden background is a symbol of lavish life that was led by Marilyn Monroe in relation to the Niagara movie in 1953 where she was the main character and the impact she left back on Hollywood and America at large as a star. The bright yellow golden color was used to represent her blonde hair. This symbolizes a beautiful lady that every guy will want to be with and a woman that all young ladies would like to associate themselves with. The art work or the painting was drawn during the age of popular music, hence it a pop art painting. Warhol had an in drive to paint pictures of popular music celebrities. During 1962, pop music and dance were prevalent and hence they made the basis for the societal culture. The Gold Marilyn Monroe portrait is one of the pop art pictures painted by Warhol. The Gold Marilyn glorifies the popular culture and also from the critiques point of view it gives a notion of consumer culture that emerged in the US after World War II. The gold Marilyn Monroe painting; to the creator it represents a Hollywood star that is adored by everyone. The artist wanted viewers of the painting to have understood that celebrities lead an expensive and lavish lifestyle. In general Warhol reflected the obsession that the society has for a celebrity. This is clearly portrayed by the expensive use of golden colors on a silkscreen; using the golden color as the background and only drawing a face at the centre of the big canvas clearly shows that Monroe was a public icon The picture has a religious or spiritual context given that the picture was created just a few months after the death of Marilyn Monroe. She committed suicide; a mysterious circumstance. Personal life of Marilyn Monroe and her ultimate death made the painting more powerful and emotionally appealing to the public. The public was fascinated on the look of the painting and connected with it given that the portrayed resembled Monroe herself in the Niagara movie. She was an icon to many and Warhol displayed her at her best, young and beautiful. The picture gave the public an emotional attachment to the deceased Monroe. Death had snatched away one that they identified themselves with. Warhol as an artist used exceptional techniques that had never been explored in the world at large. He used a collective combination of photography and painting to come up with a glamorous image using bright abstract colors. The silkscreened face image of a young and beautiful lady on a huge mass of a canvas was magnificently painted. In this section I am going to describe the use of each color, lines, and shades as used in the painting. Warhol used golden brown color to form the background of the picture. The background is painted darkly and uniformly on the peripheries. Towards the center the color is much lighter compared to the outwards or sideways. At the center a much dork brown color is used forming a protruding rectangular platform that holds the actual face image. This technique makes the womans gaze to focus directly on the observer of the picture. The painter also used golden yellow color, forming curly lines on the head of the picture to represent the beautiful and lovely hair of Marilyn Monroe. To right of the image, Warhol used brighter yellow color to give an impression that there was light coming from this side. To the left of left of the head; the golden yellow color is mixed with black color to give us a feeling of a shadow cast by head blocking the light that is coming from the right-hand side. Consequently, Warhol used pink color to represent the face and the neck of the woman in the picture. The right cheek is more lightly compared to the left one. This implies that the light is coming from the right side of the picture. The black color has also been used appropriately to represent different shadows in the picture. For instance, the black color below the chin gives us a natural sensation that we cannot see fully under the chin of a person when we look or view him/her from the frontal perspective. Nevertheless, the eyebrows have also been painted black by the artist to give us an actual sensation of a natural human being. The eyelashes are also painted black. Furthermore, below the nose, black color represents the voids that are found exactly below a natural human nose when he or she is exposed to light. The artist wisely used maroon color paint the lips thus giving the picture a real and natural color of human lips with maroon lip-steak. The white color between the lips of the woman in the picture represents white teeth, giving us an impression that the woman was smiling. The green color just below the left cheek has been used to show us that the woman in the picture was wearing a green garment tied at the back. The artist also employed the use of lines in the painting to present different aspects of his work. In reference to the picture; straight lines have been used to for a rectangular piece at the center forming the frame in which the actual image is drawn. The total picture fits proportionally in this rectangular frame. He also used softly wavy or curl lines on the head to represent the rough texture of an individuals hair. The mixture of these curly lines and golden yellow color completely implies that this is real hair. The rounded curve like lines was used by the artist to represent eyebrows and eyelashes. He also employed the use of soft rounded lines to make up the nose of the picture. The top lip was drawn rather painted with a thin line while the lower lip is full as it is painted with a thick line. It is impressive and remarkable how the artist used light in the painting. To be more specific the use of light is the one that brings out the beauty and elegance of the whole image. The image is illuminated from the right hand side; this side is brightly painted. The voids on the picture, for example where the light does not reach, the artist used black color to bring out the actual sensation. The hair on the right part of the head is painted brightly with bight golden yellow color while the hair on the left side of the head is painted with dark golden yellow color. This is clear evidence that the light is coming from the right side of the picture while the shadow is on the left side. The space in the picture, in my own opinion, Warhol did not maximally use the provided space. The image could have been painted to fill up the space available. He only used a fraction of the whole platform, only drawing a small face of a woman at the center of the massive canvas. Warhol cleverly combined his colors in the image to come up with an outstanding painting. He is well organized throughout his work. He achieved his mandate, and I call upon all upcoming artists to learn and emulate his fantastic piece of art. The main point that Warhol wanted observers of Gold Marilyn Monroe painting was that she was beautiful and a sex symbol to the society. He managed to achieve this brilliant theme by ingeniously using a combination of colors and lines to create a picture the glues an observer at a glance. The artist wanted to remind his audience about the lavish and expensive lifestyle that Marilyn Monroe led while she was alive. The joyful mood that she used to have on several occasions especially in Niagara movie was completely revealed in the picture. Her smiles in the painting justify this analogy. The only technique that Warhol used that am subjective with is the way he used space and some colors in the painting. The painting is more complex towards the center where he concentrates the whole picture in a small portion of space at the center. Secondly, the color used to represent the hair and the face is in contrast with the natural color of the face and hair of a human being. The whole aspect of the image is great and good and in fact I recommend anyone who is interested in pop art to take gold Marilyn Monroe painting as the basis of his or her interest. I liked everything about the image at a glance, as the picture itself is appealing and beautiful. The only contrast is the use of pink and yellow color s to represent the face and hair respectively. The big lesson I learned from this particular piece of art is that one can use different colors to create an image that has a natural impact. Good thoughts always culminate into tremendous quality work especially in painting. You can capture many people, funs and credible clients with every beautiful work that you produce. It is amazing how this work of art has taught me; good work can be admired a very long period of time. Good thoughts always culminate into tremendous quality work especially in painting; you can capture many funs and credible clients for the beautiful work you produce. Conclusion: What connections do you see between the subject matter and techniques the artist has used? What mood does the artist after? HOw successful was the artist in expressing or interpreting that mood? What was your subjective reaction to the work? How well did you like it or not and why? What did you learn from this particular piece of art and experience? The most extraordinary aspect to Andy Warhols famous painting of Marilyn Monroes face is how he forms his own version of her. Marilyn Monroes face is very recognizable, and almost everyone knows what she looks like. Warhol succeeds in taking a famous face, and recreating it according to his own style. The first thing I see when I look at this painting is large areas of colors. I see a green background, bright yellow hair, a pink face, green eye shadow, yellow eyes, red lips, a green mole, and a red area that appears to be her shirt. The second thing I see when I look at the poster again is black. I see black shading in the hair and around the face, black shading that creates the eyes, eyebrows and nose, black shading in the lips, and a black mole inside the green one. Another thing I notice about this painting is how it gets smaller and more complex in the middle. The green background is large and has almost no detail to it. Then the large area of yellow hair has black shading that gives it movement and dimension. Next, the eyes, nose, and mouth are created within the pink heart-shaped face. Warhol uses black shading to create the eyebrows and eyes. He gives Marilyn green eye shadow and paints yellow in her inner eye. Her eyelids and eyelashes are thick, as if she is wearing black eyeliner and mascara. Her little nose is also created with black shading, and her mole consists of a black dot with a larger green dot imperfectly surrounding it. Her lips are full and seductive, and it looks as though Warhol outlined and colored her lips in with red paint, and then proceeded to shade them inside with black. He also shades a lot along the left side of her face, into her red blouse. I notice how Warhol balances these two opposites, color and black, perhaps to highlight the two facets of Marilyns life. The colors that he uses are not true to form, but it works regardless. No one really has hair that yellow, a face that pink, or lips that red. Also, it seems rare to wear green eye shadow that bright or have yellow eyes. The effect of this exaggeration of colors is that it makes Marilyn look cartoon-like, and almost not real. This represents Marilyns public life. Externally, Marilyn led a glamorous life full of parties, celebrities, and wealth, but that was fake and overdone, just like the colors. Internally, however, her personal life was full of scandal, deceit, and heartache. This private side of Marilyn Monroe is evident through the black that forms her eyes. Though her lips do give off a sexy feeling, the shading and detailing around her eyes tell a deeper story. She looks sad and hurt, as if she is yearning for someone to help her. It is quite impressive how Warhol manages to accomplish that without losing his signature pop art style of bright colors and animated images. The message that I get from this piece is that nothing is ever what it seems. Warhol uses vivid colors and dark shading to emphasize this idea. The large areas of color symbolize a happy exterior. Things may seem to be wonderful and great on the outside, but when given a deeper look, everything has some black on the inside

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Ben Carson with Cecil MurpheyGifted Hands The Ben Carson Story :: Essays Papers

Ben Carson with Cecil MurpheyGifted Hands The Ben Carson Story The book is about a kid who grew up in a harsh area, in other words a â€Å"ghetto†. The books starts out when Ben is in fifth grade when he is failing all his classes because he couldn’t see anything without glasses that his family couldn’t afford. But after Ben got glasses he became the smartest student in all his classes. He was a very smart and good student until he reached the beginning of high school. When he entered the ninth grade year he began to be embarrassed of his social standing because people would â€Å"cap† on him and also because he wore old clothes. He was in this period until the middle of the 10th grade when his mom and the ROTC straightened him out. After that he graduated high school and attended college at Yale. While at Yale he had money problems and barely had enough money to survive. He graduated and married his wife Cookie and became a neurosurgeon. He his known as one of the top neurosurgeons if not the top neu rosurgeon because he took difficult cases which all other neurosurgeons wouldn’t take the risk to do. The message of this book is basically never give up and always try to do your best no matter what the situation and you should remember that God is with one and he should be the priority in ones life. Well for different people the message of this book could be considered important or unimportant. The ideas of this book are of importance to certain people and these certain people should consider it. There are expressions of the author shown through certain incidents like when mid-terms came during a year at Yale he was unprepared because of his procrastinating studying techniques but the night before the exam while reviewing his notes he prayed for god to help him do good on the test and he had a dream about the test and the answers were in front of him, this expressed his philosophy of god helping one if they ask. The author never tried to convince me of a point of view but he gave different examples of situations and how he settled those situations. After reading this book I found some similarities of my daily life.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Colonial Differences Essay -- essays research papers

The differences in development between the New England colonies and the Chesapeake or Middle colonies occurred for a many number of reasons. First, they were different people. They come from different places and had different ways of life. Not only did the two regions both have different governing systems, but they were also driven to the New World by different religions or incentives. Even their slight economic differences helped to shape the individuality of the two areas.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Most could probably see that is was painfully obvious as to who the religious fanatics were. New England’s colonists seemed to have a more religious tone, than did that of the Middle or Southern regions. The Puritans, who had apparently come to America to escape ridicule and religious persecution, were taking up on that very idea, punishing all those whom did not share in their ideas. They were stiff, strict people and did not allow for much, but the main idea is that they were driven by a higher power, God. This made the Puritans successful Massachusetts’s colonists in that they were strong-willed and willing to make their government work. The type of government chosen by the Puritans worked well, a theocratic environment. A theocracy is defined as government of a state by immediate divine guidance or by officials who are regarded as divinely guided. According the John Winthrop, who was to be their governor for some number of years, it seemed that t heir grand purpose in A...

Friday, October 11, 2019

Dilemma: African American and Nonviolence Essay

The omnivores dilemma is a modern problem for all human beings. These days, there are many options for a person to eat, but not all are healthy. Every day people go to supermarkets and feel totally lost because there are so many choices. Source #2 â€Å"Louis Armstrong. † Grolier. Web. 1 Jan. . Source #3 â€Å"Armstrong,Louis. † Grolier. Web. 1 Jan. . Source #4 â€Å"Louis Armstrong. † Facthound. Web. 1 Jan. . Source #5 Raum, Elizabeth,ed. Louis Armstrong : Jazz Legend. 2007. Protesting Nonviolently Did you know that three major figures used the method of nonviolence to change the world? Nonviolence has been a successful way to protest for many years and has provided major changes in life for people. Nonviolence is the best way to protest and make a major point. Gandhi was one of the first people to use nonviolence in a major way. A book tells how Gandhi went to jail instead of others because he did not fear a jail cell and proved he was nonviolent. When Gandhi organized a march officers beat the protesters and injured them severely, but they did not raise an arm to fight back. Gandhi sent a letter to Lord Irwin saying how british rule is a curse and he will stop at nothing to free his people from british rule. Gandhi initiated the first acts of nonviolence and won freedom for the people of India. Martin Luther King Jr. used nonviolent acts to fight against segregation. When MLK was part of a boycott he took full responsibility when he was arrested and said he wasn’t going anywhere or going to fight back. Martin was picking up more volunteers for protesting and said that it was hard not to fight back but they still had to lay down their weapons. The time MLK led the bus boycott he was arrested, people who had participated in the boycott actually walked down to the sheriff’s office to be arrested and to see if their name was on the list. Martin Luther King Jr. used nonviolence to get rights for colored people and followed Gandhi’s example. Nelson Mandela worked fighting racial segregation in South Africa, or apartheid, using nonviolence. Mandela’s organization started out using violence but soon converted to Gandhi’s way of nonviolence which was better morally and tactically. Nelson Mandela took lots of his time recruiting helpers for the cause. Although the work was dangerous, he was convinced that nonviolence was the way to win. Mandela talked about how if he was put to a death sentence his work work and actions would live on. Nelson Mandela adapted Gandhi’s work to help free the people of South Africa from racial oppression. Nonviolence worked to help lots of different kinds of people throughout history and proved major points. Gandhi started nonviolence and became a major figure for lots of people. Martin Luther King Jr. used nonviolence to gain rights for colored people in america and became a pivotal figure in american history. Nelson Mandela became the first South African president and is also a major figure in history. Nonviolence has changed the world majorly and next time you see a picture of Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr. , or Nelson Mandela you might think a little more about them.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Should design be a compulsory subject in high school? Essay

Design refers to the process of creating a work that satisfy the requirement, including conception, preliminary sketch, making etc. This essay will argue that design should be a compulsory subject in high school for the following reasons: improvement of average level of design skill and knowledge, enrichment of students’ imagination and creativity and connection with other subjects. The first argument that design should be a compulsory subject in high school is improvement of average level of design skill and knowledge. As students living in modern-day society, it is necessary for them to have a better understanding of a piece of work specifically, from selection and matching of colors to massive structure in furniture or architecture, through this curriculum. Besides, in many working aspects these design knowledge are highly applicable, such as PowerPoint, Photoshop skills, which is beneficial to their future career. While it can be argued that not every work has requirement of them, as a matter of fact, they can be applied not only in working field but also in daily life to meet contemporary aesthetic values. For example, students are aware how to dress up in a fashionable way or how to choose tasteful as well as functional furniture to decorate their homes, making their lives more enjoyable. Additionally, it could be argued that design, as a compulsory subject in high school, can enrich students’ imagination and creativity. During the period of adolescence when their imagination and creativity are booming rapidly, they need a stage where they are able to express innermost thoughts freely rather than absorb knowledge blindly. Hence, in the design class they are provided an opportunity to make fully use of their imagination and creativity and realize their thoughts. Plus, they will receive a large number of innovative ideas when they have interaction with other students. Although it is believed that not every student have plentiful imagination and creativity, actually these courses will guide students how they explore and develop them as much as they can. Finally, design being a compulsory subject in high school has strong connection with other subjects. When students study design, they are more likely to acknowledge other arts’ subjects such as history, cultures, which are tightly associated with design. Students always remember the days when William Morris led the Art Craft Reform and those modern designs from Bauhaus. Not only the arts knowledge but also the science ones can be obtained from various designs. For example, a great deal of mathematical regulation can be found in the designs made by nature and some of these patterns physically contribute to structure in architecture. While more time may be put in studying, students actually can relax their brains after whole day intense study of Math or English when discovering and appreciating the beauty of their colorful lives. In conclusion, there are several reasons, which strongly support the argument that design should be a compulsory subject in high school. In fact learning design in high school can benefit students by promoting their basic design skill, which can be applied in future occupation, and their daily tastes, cultivating their imagination and creativity and exploring relationship between design and other subject through a relaxing atmosphere.

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Book Review: Supercrunchers

We re likely to discount discomforting evidence and focus Instead on evidence that supports our preexisting beliefs. Reason 3: Most people are overconfident while they make prediction to the future while some people tend to be undercoating and slow to change In the face of new evidence. And overconfidence becomes severe when the problems become more complicated. 2. The author suggests that equations should not be without some kind of â€Å"over ride† capability. What is the â€Å"over ride† capability? Why does the author suggest this is necessary?Do you agree or disagree with this. Answers: â€Å"Over ride† capability refers to some kind of discretionary escape hatch some way for a human to override the prediction of the formula. Just like the rejection area of hypothesis test. It is necessary because a statistical procedure cannot estimate the causal impact of rare events because there simply aren't enough data concerning them to make a credible estimate. The r arity of the event doesn't mean that it will not have a big impact when the event does in fact occur.It Just means that statistical formulas will not be able to future the impact. In such case, a â€Å"over ride† capability is needed. I agree with this point because it is common in the day to day life. We need to find out when does the statistic way loose effectiveness. Every method has its own drawback; we need to figure out a systematic way to â€Å"automatically' reflect the time that a statistic method fails. 3. The author puts forward that if one concludes that equations are in fact better than experts, then one must ask the question of where experts fit Into the process of prediction.Explain the place for experts In a world where predictions are made by equations. Answers: In a word, the most Important thing that is left to human experts Is to use our minds and our intuition to guess at what variables should and should not be Included in statistical analysis. A statist ical regression can tell us the weights to place upon various factors. Human By Ranchers Chem. Email: [email  protected] Deed experts, however, are crucially needed to generate the hypotheses about what causes what.The regressions can test whether there Is a causal effect and estimate the size f the causal impact, but somebody needs to specify the test itself. In addition, humans are crucial not only in deciding what to test, but also in collecting and. At times, creating the data. Reason 2: Once we form a mistaken belief about something, we tend to cling to it. We are likely to discount discomforting evidence and focus instead on evidence that to change in the face of new evidence. And overconfidence becomes severe when the than experts, then one must ask the question of where experts fit into the process of reduction.Explain the place for experts in a world where predictions are made by equations. Answers: In a word, the most important thing that is left to human experts is to u se our minds and our intuition to guess at what variables should and should not be included in statistical analysis. A statistical regression can tell us the weights what. The regressions can test whether there is a causal effect and estimate the size humans are crucial not only in deciding what to test, but also in collecting and, at

Tuesday, October 8, 2019

CSR strategy and win-win strategy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

CSR strategy and win-win strategy - Essay Example nization that invests in the chemical industry, corporate social responsibility is one of the most important factors that influence customer relationship and hence the profitability of the organization. A critical analysis of the organizational strategy will reveal the CSR strategies that Bayer Pharmaceutical Company has deployed and the way it has impacted on its business development strategies. First, the organization has invested in long term customer relationships by ensuring that customers benefit from quality products that the organization produces. Over time, the organization has invested in production of quality plastic materials as one of the CSR strategies to win customer loyalty. For an organization to win the long term loyalty of its customers, it is crucial for the organization to invest in quality products that serve the needs of the customers more satisfactorily (Crane, Palazzo, Spence & Matten, 2014). For a strong win-win approach, the organization needs to establish a symbiotic relationship in which both the customers and the organization have a mutual benefit. Customers are likely to remain loyal to organizations that satisfy their needs and protect quality. As such, the reason why Bayer Pharmaceutical Company has remained profitable is because they have provided quality products to win the loyalty of their customers. Bayer Pharmaceutical Company has used environmental friendly methods to attract customers to their business organization. A strong Corporate social responsibility strategies ensures that the organizational operation zero negative effects of the other stakeholders including the customers, the government and the environment. Since Bayer Pharmaceutical Company is a chemical based company, it releases a number of harmful chemicals that may have negative effects on the environment. However, the company has put enough efforts to ensure that the organization reduces its disposal of harmful chemicals in the environment. For instance, the

Monday, October 7, 2019

European Union Law and European Court of Justice Research Paper

European Union Law and European Court of Justice - Research Paper Example As the European Union believes in the principle that there must be harmony and equality of power between both individual entity as well as institutions must exist that why the legal jurisprudence has been changed in such manner. However, there are several such incidents and occasions where, though it is considered that an institution will act neutrally and for the benefit of common citizens, institutions act in a biased manner. Due to this reason, it has become important to introduce judicial protection for the purpose of protecting the fundamental rights of the individuals. While analyzing the constitutional functions of the ECJ Frank Hoffmeister has identified, â€Å"Ensuring access to Court for citizens was identified as the fourth constitutional function. For sure, as with some national Supreme Courts, there is no right to a constitutional complaint against any Community act, including of a legislative nature, allegedly infringing a human right of an EU citizen. Rather, Article 230 (4) of the Treaty allows bringing an action of annulment against a decision addressed to a person or against a decision, which, although in the form of a regulation or a decision addressed to another person, is of direct and individual concern to the former.†2 Thus, the aspect of protecting individual rights has been reasserted by such observation and at the same time, it has become one of the major constitutional functions of the European Court of Justice (ECJ). To serve this purpose and protecting rights of individual citizens, they have not only been provided with the access to the European Court of Justice but at the same time with the aim at strengthening position of the Court the Art 230 has been implemented which is aimed at permitting the court to take the right kind of action to annual community acts.  

Sunday, October 6, 2019

Violence and Its Impact Upon Adolescents Research Paper

Violence and Its Impact Upon Adolescents - Research Paper Example It was also used to describe to indicate a power relationship that is aimed at constraining or subjecting another person. Over the centuries that followed, violence was given a fundamental role by western civilizations where on one had it was seen to quite fiercely denounce the excesses of violence and openly declared it to be illegitimate, However, on the other hand, Western civilization was also seen to give violence a rather elevated position where it was legitimized so as to validate the actions of knights who were forced to shed blood in the noble defense of the orphans and widows as well as defend the just causes of the Christian kings against the Infidels, and trouble makers (Muchembled 7-9). The brutality of all human relations was accepted as being a universal social language in addition to its being considered to be absolutely normal and quite necessary in most western societies up until the seventeenth century. While cultural ideals might have gradually evolved over time, violence is seen to still play a prominent role in modern society and equally affects people of all ages hailing from the different walks of life. The violence perpetrated against the young people is found to be particularly worrying as it can significantly affect their future development and negatively impact the future human society. There are a number of different development models that are used in the assessment of the impact that violence has on a child’s development. These development models are seen to variously include: The Transactional Model of Development: â€Å"This development model is seen to greatly emphasize the importance of the roles that are seen to be played by both the environment and the child in the determination of the child’s development† (Addison-Scott 17). The main premise of this model is that as opposed to a child acting within its environment, both the environment and the child mutually end up altering each other. Any positive outc omes from this interaction are largely considered to be a consequence of a nurturing environment having been provided to the child while children in a mostly negative environment are normally thought to be at a rather high risk for later difficulties (Addison-Scott 17). According to this model, it can also be argued that a child’s future cannot be solely and accurately predicted by looking at either a single environmental event or a biological event, the model generally assumes that a child’s development is generally made though a reciprocal and bidirectional interaction between the environment and the child (Addison-Scott 17). The transactional model has been largely criticized for the fact that although it attempts to look at the establishment of bidirectional relationships between the environment and the child, it however fails to try and explain the variance that is usually found to exist between them. It is also pointed out that the transactional m