Monday, September 30, 2019

“Obasan” by Joy Kogawa Essay

The issue of racial conflict has caused great controversy for many centuries. Conflict which is incited by racism is often thought to be the worst of all conflicts because it is unfounded and based on utterly false beliefs. In society today, there are many racist people who put down and almost ostracize the people of another community. In Joy Kogawa’s novel, Obasan, the issue of racism is discussed through the various letters kept by Obasan which in turn provides a first-hand look at was done to Naomi’s family. In Obasan, there are many instances where the Joy Kogawa uses images of animals, such as insects, kittens and especially chickens to support a general theme of dehumanization. Also these animals always seem to correspond to human beings, whether they are generalized groups or individual characters. In other words, it is very apparent to see the foreshadowing of the story and also the close connection between the animals in the story and the human condition of the story, through the use of these vivid images of the animals. At the very beginning of the novel, when Obasan and Naomi are  rummaging through the attic and getting reminded about all of the memories, they come across a family of spiders. These spiders are described as being â€Å"round black blots, large as a cat’s eye† (24) and in a sense, disgusting enough to send shivers down any persons’ spine. This description of the black and creepy spiders is a foreshadowing of all of the memories that Obasan and Naomi have, as the memories and the plot itself is quite dark and horrific. There are many â€Å"large and black† memories that Naomi has such as the death of her mother and the incident in Old Man Gower’s bathroom. However, it is possible to assume that the blackest memories are the ones that deal with the racism towards the Japanese community. For example, it seems that everyone who has ever had an effect on Naomi, good or bad, has deserted her with time. Also, on the way to school, Naomi and Stephen are taunted and teased by the other school kids. Most importantly, the very way that the Canadian Government mistreated the Japanese community, sending them to concentration camps, putting them on trains and forcing them to live in tiny huts, is a cruel memory. This memory a will probably stay with Naomi for the rest of her life much like the ancient spiders in the attic. The part of the novel with the kitten trapped underneath the outhouse in another, quite disgusting look at the issue of racism. The thing that is so shocking about this part is that the white-haired girl blames Naomi for something that Naomi obviously did not do, throwing a kitten down in the outhouse. What is even more shocking is that the girl, the owner of the kitten does not go down and get her kitten, but instead leaves the kitten there to eventually die. The girl can represent the white Canadian and the kitten can be seen as a Japanese Canadian living in that society. The kitten is stuck in the outhouse, which can represent Canada. While it is down there, â€Å"no one is nearby†¦no one comes to help† (172) even though the cat makes â€Å"a faint steady mewing† (172). Since there is no one around the kitten will eventually be forgotten about. In other words, the Canadian government tries to get rid of the Japanese community by sending them to concentration camps where, despite all of the arguments and letters sent by Aunt Emily to be heard (the mewing), the Japanese community will probably be forgotten about as there is no one around. Another example of this animal imagery is when Naomi is standing alone in the backyard next to the cage of the white hen, she places one by one little yellow chicks in the cage with the hen. Suddenly and â€Å"without warning, the hen jabs down on the [chicks]† (62) consistently. Through the use of this animal imagery, the issue of racism is clearly apparent. For example, the hen can be seen as the white people living in â€Å"the cage† or Canada. Slowly, the Japanese people, in this case the yellow chicks, immigrate into the cage. Without doing anything wrong or anything that would anger the hen, or white people, the hen comes down and starts pecking at the chicks. In this part, it is possible to assume that the sole reason that the hen comes down on the chicks is that the yellow chicks have appearances different than the white hen. Also, there is a great deal of foreshadowing in this little part of the novel as the Canadian people will soon start ostracising the Japanese Canadian community with no warning at all. Not only will they ostracise the community, the Canadians, although they do not kill the Japanese like the hen did to the chicks, but the racism is so strong that they will send the Japanese on concentration camps away from all urban areas and even treat  them like animals forcing them into little tool shed houses covered with cow manure for a roof. Another example of the chicken imagery is in the school yard where a bunch of Japanese schoolboys are killing a white chicken. This imagery of the chicken suffering is one of the better examples of racism in the novel. This killing of the chicken can symbolise the anger that the Japanese community have against the white Canadians after the way that they have been treated. This hatred and anger is in fact so strong that it is not good enough to just kill the chicken, but they â€Å"got to make it suffer† (169). This is kind of ironic as well, because the chicken can be seen as the Japanese community and the schoolboys can be seen as the white Canadians. The Canadians in the novel continuously make the Japanese people â€Å"suffer† instead of killing them instantly as killing them or deporting them would affect the Canadian image. It is for this reason that the Canadians decide to torment the Japanese and try to cover everything up. In conclusion, Obasan, by Joy Kogawa deals with the issue of racism in a very efficient way by using unique images of animals to not only represent human beings in society, but also to help support the theme of this dehumanization. Racism in society is extremely awful as it is based on utterly false beliefs. In the novel, for example, all Japanese were considered to be evil people even though the Japanese living in Canada did hardly anything to the Canadians. Individuals of a certain community are being ostracized by other people for being of a certain race. Obasan, teaches us that we should not consider a certain community to be evil, but embrace the differences in society. In other words, Hitler was a fanatical German, however not all Germans are fanatical.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Impact of US Dollar on Canadian Economy Essay

The Canadian Economy is strong. According to the 2001 Canada Yearbook, factors contributing to the country’s economic health are: natural resources; manufacturing and construction industries; financial and service sectors; the ability to span distances using communications and transportation technologies; dynamic trade relationships with other nations; and the ability to compete in a global marketplace (2004). Being the 2nd largest country in the world, Canada’s natural resources accounts for 12. 6% of its GDP growth in 2003. The Energy Sector, Forestry, Mineral Sector as well as Geomatics Sciences are responsible for this growth. Exportation of natural gas, timber and wood products, potash, uranium and other minerals make up for the growth. Geomatics is the science and technology of gathering, analyzing, interpreting, distributing and using geographic information. Since 2002, when the Canadian Government initiated the focus on understanding and mapping its land resources, it became one of the leading suppliers of information, technology and equipment in Geomatics. Today, Geomatics is a $10 to $20 billion dollar industry growing at a 20% rate, and thus is a potential growth area for the Canadian natural resources sector. According to Industry Canada, the Manufacturing and Construction Industries contribute to about 40% of Canada’s GDP, with an actual gross approximately $25 billion in December 2005. The two industries combined showed growth near single digit levels, (manufacturing at 1% GDP and construction at 0. 7% in Dec. 2005) which propelled the 0. 4 over-all GDP, making up for the loss in the Agriculture section at -1. 6% GDP in December 2005 (2006). The services sector in general is boosting the economy. Canada Yearbook states that the sector employs three out of four Canadians in the 21st Century (2004). Though their output is not as tangible as manufactured or natural goods, the services sector is everywhere and serve as the backbone of every economic sector. From the driver of a courier van to the company financial analyst to the service providers in Civil Defense, all the roles belong to the services sector. Together with advances in information technology, the services sector is transforming Canadian Economy into a knowledge-based economy (2006), as claimed by the Canadian Yearbook, where-in its modern products are efficient back-end services, professional consultancy and breakthrough technologies and equipment. Despite the economic transformation, trade is still the main means of business for Canada. As such, relationships with trade partners play a vital role. Among the countries in the world, four markets are in constant and significant trade relations with Canada: United States, United Kingdom, Japan and more recently, China. Among the four, its close neighbor, the United States takes about 75 – 80% of Canada’s trading business. Thus, changes in the Unites States economy, particularly of the US dollar impacts Canadian economy. State of Canada-US Trade Geography and history have provided opportunities for the United States and Canada to be in close business relations. In the natural order of things, free trade between the two nations would be beneficial in toto. However, political and social ramifications have prevented the successful pact since the mid 1800s until such time when, despite the disagreement of Canada’s Conservative Party, the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between US and Canada was effected in October of 1987. The over-all provision is to minimize tariffs of all goods traded between the two countries to a maximum of 1%. With the FTA in effect, trade between the two countries rose to 40% from a pre-FTA level of 25%. However, there is strong opposition from Canada about violations of the United States in the provisions of FTA, to the disadvantage of Canada’s agricultural business. However, seeing the benefits of a free trade zone, Prime Minister elect Jean Chretien improved the FTA and broadened the extend of the free trade to Mexico. Thus, in January of 1994, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between the United States, Canada and Mexico, took effect. Such Agreement involves an immediate and phased release of tariffs and trade barriers for agricultural products traded between the three countries. A macro benefit of NAFTA is a systematic conduct of business within North America because of the creation of an impartial, rules-based system to resolve dispute among the countries. Significant increases in trade activity were observed among the three countries in the first seven years of NAFTA implementation as compared to agricultural trade activities with other markets outside of North America. Canadian agricultural and agri-food exports to the United States and Mexico have increased by 95 percent, reaching $14. 8 billion in 2000. In comparison, Canadian exports of agricultural products to non-NAFTA countries grew by 45 percent during the same period, according to Agriculture and Agri-food Department of Canada (2006). Prior to NAFTA, agricultural import-export activities between Canada and the United States was only at $13. 7 billion. However, this increased $25. 1 billion in 2000, 82% higher, since 1993. Because 61% of Canada’s farming produce are exported to the United States, agricultural exports for the same period grew 92% to reach $14. 1 billion. As a result, Canada’s agricultural trade surplus with the United States has more than tripled since 1993. As summarized by the Agricultural Department of Canada, Horticultural crops: volume exports of tomatoes increased twenty-fold while exports of peppers and lettuce increased seven-fold, and exports of cucumbers increased six-fold. Oilseeds products: soybean oil volume exports increased seven-fold, exports of sunflower oil quadrupled, and canola oil exports increased by 44 percent. Specialty crops: dried beans volume exports nearly tripled. Red meats: beef volume exports more than doubled while pork exports increased by 87 percent. Processed products: roasted coffee volume exports increased nearly seventeen-fold, malt exports increased nearly five-fold, exports of frozen French fries increased four-fold, and pasta exports more than tripled. Following the success of NAFTA and its predecessors from other continents of the world, Canada together with thirty-three other countries belonging to the American Continent are drafting a free trade agreement called Free Trade Agreement Among the Americas (FTAA). With its complex participation, the agreement is still under negotiations. Factors that Influence the Rise of the Canadian Dollar (against the US Dollar) With the rise of the United States as an Economic super power, it naturally assumed a role of having the US dollar as a worldwide currency. Significant markets such as Canada are always compared to the dollar. Moreover, being a majority trade partner of the US, the exchange rate of the Canadian dollar matters significantly over the US dollar. Since 2003, Statistics Canada has plotted the rise of the Canadian dollar against the US dollar and indicated its significant rise against the greenback. There are three factors that may have contributed to this growth: first, the weakening of the US economy brought about by increasing current account deficits; secondly, the worldwide increase in commodity prices; and thirdly, the improved performance of the Canadian economy resulting in trade surplus. Since 2001, there has been a common phenomenon in most major currencies in the world: they appreciated against the US dollar. The Euro and Canadian dollar were two of the strongest performers. When the Euro surpassed the greenback in 2003 analysts predicted that there was no turning back. While the loonie has seen significant appreciation at the rate of 25% since 2001 until 2005, surpassing historical performance by the US dollar. Such appreciation has been driven by the increasing trade deficits of the US. Since 2001, the US has been buying more goods and a service than the country is able to sell. More oil, gas, metals and services were bought with US dollars than were sold outside of the US. Some analysts believe that the on-going War on Terror has been the main source of the deficit. While the country is still figuring out how to address the deficits, major trade partners such as Canada are reaping the benefits of a weakening dollar. At the mercy (or because) of commodity supply, the Canadian economy remained resilient despite the volatility of oil, gas, metals and wood. Being a major supplier of such commodities, precarious world prices came at an advantage. Despite some internal losses as a crude oil refiner, the bottom line effect of this factor remained positive and contributed to GDP. Thus, the increase of the Canadian dollar. Last factor that weakened the dollar from Canada’s point of view is the initiative of its government to attract more businesses through higher interest rates (vs. that of the United States). The over-all effect therefore, of the three factors above is the weakening of the US dollar against the Canadian dollar. Today, the exchange rate of the Canadian dollar is rising and reaching its peak in 2001, at C$ 0. 846 vs. the US$. With such growth, the general assessment of Canadian economists, businesses and external analysts is that this is positive for the Canadian economy, now more than ever. The next sections will have full discussion of the different sectors in the Canadian economy as impacted by the weakening (or strength) of the US dollar. Impact of the US Dollar on Canadian Industries Exports Apart from agriculture and agri-products, steel is another commodity that Canada heavily trades with the United States. Canada’s steel production accounts for approximately two percent of the world’s total supply. This is very small as compared to the Asian producers (Japan, North Korea and Taiwan), which accounts for nearly 40%. Nevertheless, 89% of Canada’s steel export go to the United States while 58% of Canada’s imported steel come from the US. Trade barriers, transportation costs prevent small Canadian steel producers from competing outside of North America. North America’s open market is ideal for small and big steel manufacturers from Canada. Just by its size and high demand, the opportunity for supply is wide. In addition, proximity to such a large market allows for low transportation cost. Just-in-time supply is immediately served without much impact on delivery cost. Furthermore, inventory can be kept low unless preparing for construction peak. Steel pricing in North America is also higher than other export markets by as much as 40% when compared to Japan, where steel importation is minimal due to its own supply. In North America, particularly the United States, steel trade is predicted to continue growth. In this light, sustained and open access to the U. S. market is key to the Canadian steel industry. A slight fallback in the market, for example, experienced in 1995 posed a threat to the industry. Whenever such a slow-down happens, issues related to anti-dumping and government subsidies arise, without any proper venue for address under NAFTA. Unfair trade practice is an issue commonly raised by the US against Canada when market conditions appear to favor Canada’s steel industry. In the same manner, weakening of the US dollar may initiate such a condition when Canada’s steel industry continues to maintain a surplus against the US. Once again is likely to be subject to charges of unfair trading practices by U. S. steelmakers. In 1993, according to Industry Canada, the country had a global steel trade surplus of $580 million and a steel trade surplus with the U. S. of $909 million. While the trade surplus was maintained with the U. S. , the surge in steel demand in 1994 resulted in a dramatic rise in imports and produced an overall international trade deficit of $207 million. The total trade balance deficit increased in 1995 to $349 million as Canadian imports again exceeded exports. However, the steel trade surplus with the U. S. was $1. 0 billion in 1995. Over the period from 1989 to 1995, steel imports have increased from 18. 6 percent of apparent domestic consumption in Canada to 29. 9 percent in 1995. Meanwhile the import share held by the U. S. increased from 8. 6 percent to 17. 5 percent. In the U. S. market, imports increased from 17. 9 percent of apparent domestic consumption in 1989 to 21. 4 percent in 1995, with Canada’s import share increasing from 3. 1 percent to 4. 0 percent. With such steel trade dynamics between the two countries, the weakening of the US dollar means the increase in Canada’s export price. Either more US dollars are needed to purchase the same Canadian product in the 21st century, than during the slump 1990s; or less Canadian dollars are earned for every sale of a Canadian export. At the other end, when Canada imports from the US, the commodities and services become cheaper. Either way, both impacts sales and profits. When sales and profits are volatile, vulnerable small businesses tend to closedown and contribute to unemployment. In order to maintain profit margins, Canadian export companies will need to improve efficiencies. Improvement may come in three ways: production streamlining, outsourcing and amortization gains. When the US dollar is low, it is the best time for companies to reevaluate tools and machinery throughput. Technology improvements will present more-efficient, more-automated processes, which can be useful in improving production efficiency. Since most equipment are bought from the US or are priced in US dollars, lower dollar exchange rates mean cheaper equipment. This is one way that exports companies to maintain profit margins by reducing production cost through efficient machines. In the same line of thinking importing services also come cheaper than when the US dollar is strong. Whether obtaining services from the US, or from East Asia, where intelligent and skilled labor is cheap, outsourcing back-end process in export production always contribute to efficiency. Though this may result to redundancies, macro effects of outsourcing prove to be positive to the bottom line. Lastly, for businesses that amortize US dollar-denominated loans, there will be gains in the amortization payment because of the weakened dollar. Furthermore, during a round-table public forum in 2004, businessmen have suggested that the Canadian government consider lowering interests rates to match that of the US. Doing so will minimize the impact of loans on Canadian dollar-based denominations despite its appreciation. Imports The stronger currency benefits importers. Consumers and businesses benefit from a better Canada-U. S. exchange rate through less expensive imports from the U. S. The depreciation of the dollar lowers import costs and, more specifically, offers cheaper capital goods, making investment in new machinery and equipment in Canada cheaper. Canadian businesses import 80% of equipment and machinery, and with these imports now more affordable, a boost to business investment can be expected. However, some argue that with the loss of revenue, investments in new machinery and equipment would not be substantial.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Culture Briefing. Nicaragua Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Culture Briefing. Nicaragua - Research Paper Example As such, all systems and strategies of leadership have to address themselves to these unique attributes in order to achieve some level of meaning and efficiency. Nicaragua has gone through a troubled history with challenges on nearly all the spheres of her national life. Appropriating these challenges into opportunities is a leadership skill that entails strategy, reflection, and judgment. Nicaragua is situated in Central America on the borders of Honduras and Costa Rica to the North and South respectively. Nicaragua’s geographical positioning places it within the tropics. The Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea surround the country to the west and east respectively. In terms of size, Nicaragua remains the largest country in Central America. Two lowlands and a highland divide the country (Gritzner, 2010). The lowlands are the Pacific lowlands and the Caribbean lowlands while the central highland situates at the center of the country. In this regard, it follows that much of the country features significant aspects of geographical features that relate to the highland and the two lowlands. Nicaragua remains one of the biologically unique countries due to its unique ecosystems, which thrive within the fertile areas of the country. The element of biodiversity features among the country’s attraction as a destination of tourism and research.In essence, some of the issues that attend to the element of diversity have to be regarded in terms of the distinguishing geographical features that separate the country into its unique aspects. It might be argued that the determination of the country’s diversity is to be determined through a vast array of features that determine the manner in which it relates to the element of diversity. In this regard, some of the issues that attend to the element of diversity have to be considered within the context of geographical uniqueness and the rich tropical climate that enables the thriving of the diverse ecosystem in the Central American country (Staten, 2010). Its vast geographical space offers unique advantages that connect within the social and environmental spheres as understood within the element of cultural diversity. The history of Nicaragua weaves together the origin, lives, and experiences of the original inhabitants and the indigenous groups of the region before bringing out the various aspe cts of life that connect with the experiences of colonialism and the struggles of the post-colonial country. The original inhabitants of Nicaragua were people who spoke the Chibcha language. They lived simple lives and practiced hunting and gathering as their mainstay. The original inhabitants lacked permanent places as they kept shifting from one region to another, within the vast countryside, in search for food and water. Conflicts between them and other indigenous group led to migrations and settlements in areas that would later define the different ethnic compositions of Nicaragua (Baracco, 2005). However, the inhabitants who made the most significant impact on the history of Nicaragua were the people of Nicarao ethnic group from whom the name Nicaragua was derived. These people later encountered the Spanish conquers who mingled with the native women leading to the mixed race of the mixed race that constitutes the dominant race of the people of Nic

Friday, September 27, 2019

Payments and Finance in International Trade Essay

Payments and Finance in International Trade - Essay Example In sharp contrast to the results, we find that liberalization has, on average, robust positive effects on growth, openness and investment rates within countries. We have some examples of Trade Liberalization (Arnold, 2007). The payment instruction was subsequently misplaced on the desk of a clerk at Mega Bank and accordingly the relevant accounting entries for crediting Alpha's account were not made by Mega Bank, and Alpha was not notified that payment from Delta had been received. On July 5th, Delta instructed its bank, Grand Banque in Paris, to make a funds transfer to Alpha's account at Mega Bank in London to be credited on or before July 7th. On the morning of July 6th, in order to effect the payment, Grand Banque debited Delta's account and simultaneously sent payment instructions via SWIFT to its correspondent bank in the UK, Royal Bank PLC, instructing it to make an inter-bank transfer to Mega Bank in sterling for credit to Alpha's account on or before close of business on July 7th. Royal Bank went ahead and sent the payment order to Mega Bank on July 6th, with instructions to credit the account of Alpha on or before close of business on July 7th. White barle... Alpha is frustrated that it has not yet been paid and advises Delta on 8th July that it is no longer liable to perform under the contract (Balamurugan and Madhura, 2002). Many of the hurdles to international trade took the shape of high tariffs on imports of manufactured goods. The typical aim of such tariffs was to protect domestic industries from foreign competition. On consequence, however, were "beggar of neighbor" retaliatory trade policies with countries progressively raising trade barriers against each other. Ultimately, this depressed world demand and contributed to the Great Depression of the 1930s. This event was the boom that woke the world up but it was not the only reason that led to liberalization. People begun to realize that their basic necessities were not satisfied because they are not available in their home country or too expensive because of the imposed tariffs. They also realized that they will gain advantages through engaging in international trade, like improving their living standard and satisfying more needs (Brennan and Cao, 1996). If the country is going to export, it will need to expand it output which means more people will be hired and living standard will improve. Moreover when removing tariffs imposed on imported goods that my country doesn't produce, people will be able to purchase them at reasonable prices therefore satisfying more needs. The developed countries realized that even if they have comparative advantage in some products, they should specialize in the production of those goods that it produces most efficiently and to buy the goods that it produces less efficiently from other countries, even if this means buying goods from other countries that it could produce more efficiently itself (Brinblatt,

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Secure Software Testing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Secure Software Testing - Essay Example So, it can easily be visualized that the CCQAS is a massive system with multiple sources of data storage as well possible queries for retrieval. Testing phase with the software has been completed in two phases. The first one being the System Integration test (SIT)and in the second phase it's been the System Qualification Test (SQT). The SIT being the first phase of testing i.e., Development Test & Evaluation (DT&E) is performed by The McVey Company, Inc (TMCI). TMCI provided an independent team for this test with sole purpose being the validation of capabilities of the CCQAS system in ensuring technical specification, the rules of business, its various functionalities and other specifications mentioned in the requirement document as well as those defined by the developers and possible end users. The test environment provided for this phase of testing was similar to that of the designed production environment. TMCI role in this phase extends to testing all releases of CCQAS during the duration of SIT. Now in the second phase of DT&E it's the System Qualification Test (SQT)that needs to be performed. Here, the testing is performed by the experts of the subject matter or the service representatives.

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Final Exam Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Final Exam - Case Study Example 3. The Vice President of Information Technology also wanted to know what types of external and internal information would be required to develop the business plans, and how they would obtain this information. He wanted to know what types of analytical tools, methodologies and skills they would need to generate and analyze this information. 5. Finally, the CEO stated emphatically that she did not have the time to spare or the resources to devote to writing business plans that would only â€Å"gather dust on the shelves.† She asks you how you would ensure that the plans were implemented effectively. The basic concept of a strategic business plan is to determine the major goals within our organization. In doing this, it is important that we are careful to observe company policies and develop the strategies to gain the needed resources to produce successful plans and objectives in achieving new company goals. The use of a strategic business plan will help the company by providing a foundation to organize Lawrence’s current procedures and policies. The new strategies we implement should then show us how to develop ideas in planning how to effectively use those resources that we already have. In turn we should be able to use the current company policies as references to move us in the direction in which we need to be going. The unique challenge in this issue seems to come with a focus on a need to improve performance. While strategic planning, we will determine exactly which of the six products is producing the best numbers and where in nation the bulk of our profits are streaming from. In these specific areas we will continue to thrive by not only exceeding our customer’s needs but exceeding their expectations as well. Proper planning will also help us to further understand why the company has been failing to meet its market share goals. Certain cost can be reduced

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

4.Is the process of globalization undermining the authority of the Essay

4.Is the process of globalization undermining the authority of the state and removing it from its central role in International Relations - Essay Example (McGrew, 1998, p 219-243) Gilpin (1987, p19) argues that the process of globalisation is characterised by the interaction of economic and political issues between sovereign states. However, this [process of globalisation has been intensified because of the introduction of technology, better communication and better modes of travel between these countries. Liberal economists believe that globalisation assists in the process of building peace in the world. It encourages economic growth and also institutes order in the international arena. Kennedy (1993, p 12) also adds that the process of globalisation has shown how states no longer take up the central role in their individual economic process. This argument can be verified by the existence of a global economy. The forces affecting the global economy have very little to do with what is prevalent in specific countries. Additionally, the rate of flow on capital from the international arena into and out of specific countries also indicates how nations are loosing their central role. Because of globalisation in the business sector, politics in individual countries has to change to accommodate this new phenomenon,. Some of the arguments for against the denationalisation of states will be examined inn the essay below. These arguments will be based on their effect on state authority in international relations. Jackson and James (1999, p 34) describe the state as a community of persons that have the sole authority to exert physical force within a certain territory. This means that there are certain features that are distinct to states. If these features are eliminated then that particular state will not have a central role. These factors include; ONeill (2006, p13) says that the issue of globalisation has not undermined the states’ role because it has not hampered the issue of central political relations. A case in point is the European Union, where member states from various parts

Monday, September 23, 2019

Immanuel Kant's critique of happiness as an ethical principle Term Paper

Immanuel Kant's critique of happiness as an ethical principle - Term Paper Example Immanuel Kant's critique of happiness as an ethical principle In his deontological theory, which is based on duty, he emphasized on the pre-eminence of reason that lead to the actions. He indicates that it is a person’s duty to act morally by obeying the moral law. He mentions, â€Å"Everyone must admit that if a law is to have a moral force, that is, to be a basis of an obligation, it must carry with it absolute necessity† (Kant, 1785, p.51) ii. Kant defines duty as practical and unconditional necessity of action which holds true for all rational beings. (Kant, 1785, p. 26) Kant describes happiness as a natural purpose of life. He quotes, â€Å"All rational beings that are dependent; and thus one purpose that they not only can have but that we can assume they all do have as a matter of natural necessity. This purpose is happiness† (Kant, 1785, p. 20). Kant, however, finds happiness as an ambiguous feeling. He says, â€Å"The concept of happiness is so indefinite that, although each person wishes to attain it, he can never give a definite and self-consistent account of what it is that he wishes and wills under the heading of wanting happiness† (Kant, 1785, p. 21). A person’s perception of happiness is dependent on his experiences in life. A person might feel that wealth will give him happiness; someone else may want knowledge while those who feel that life itself gives pleasure may wish to have long life. However, they may not know with wealth comes anxiety in them and envy and maneuverings of others; which make the person unhappy. Knowledge may show a person the dreadfulness of evils which he was ignorant of and hence scare him. Long life accompanied with continuous illness is a burden more than a boon. Hence they may not feel as happy as the imagined on their achievement. Additionally, if a person pursues happiness, he can only get bits and pieces of advice which may be frugality, diet, restraints etc. and not detailed guiding principles as we have in case of moral laws. To explain the path of actual happiness, Kant (1785) mentions, â€Å"the completed idea of happiness requires the thought of an absolute whole—the thought of a maximum of well-being in my present and in every future condition† (p. 21). Kant (1785) adds, â€Å"There couldn’t be an imperative that in the strict sense commanded us to do what makes for happiness, because happiness is an ideal not of reason but of imagination, depending only on empirical grounds. (p. 22). Thus, a person will achieve what he imagines as happiness, depends on several factors that can impact his future states and that there is not even remote possibility that he will take up a single action that can deviate him from his mission of complete happiness. In any scenario, it is not possible for a human being to have the kind of foresight and capability to plan and achieve his sources of happiness in such a manner. Hence he can never be happy as understood in a common man’s language. Kant has expla ined that an action based on impulse to satisfy one’s feelings cannot always be right. Such an action that is motivated by some sort of inclination can never be based on moral laws. Also, what makes a person happy can be cause of other person’s unhappiness. It cannot be ethical to make another human being unhappy. Thus Kant has explained the meaning of happiness in a manner that it does not play any role in the ethical system. Alternatively he has chosen to define happiness as the end purpose of any human being’s life and not an ethic. He says: Humanity might survive even if

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Troubled masculinity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Troubled masculinity - Essay Example The peculiar aspect of this influence lies in the fact that the old forms of social relationship as well as commonly accepted practices are damaged; that is why, according to Zimmer-Tamakoshi, men feel that their masculinity is at risk. No matter now sorrowful it may seem, but one of the most widely practices ways of reinforcing masculinity in Papua New Guinea is manifested in the form of marital violence. All the researchers point out that this is a tremendous problem which heavily affects women. Indeed, Wardlow argues that men do not allow women to fully embrace the ways of modernity and use violence as a tool to control them (147). What is more important is that people of Papue New Guinea were traditionally known to be quite aggressive and impulsive which means that there is a significant history of violence among the local population. As a result, the contemporary rise in marital violence is not seen as something extraordinary: it is regarded as a valid manifestation of the traditional practices. In spite of the fact that this can be seen from different perspectives, it is beyond any doubt that women suffer from such state of affairs. Finally, the authors agree on the fact that Christianity should also be credited for changing the social environment of the region in question. Indeed, various Christian denominations saw Papua New Guinea as a platform to exercise their influence and were quite delighted to find locals there since with their help the congregation will become bigger.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Mary Shelley Essay Example for Free

Mary Shelley Essay Victor neglects his paternal duties as soon as he realises them. He runs away from the creature at the moment of birth and shows negligence immediately to his child. This highlights how pathetic Victor is, he cannot commit himself to anyone apart from himself . In comparison the creature desires a family so he wont be alone, unlike Victor. He goes to great lengths in a quest for a companion, he makes threats and kills people to ensure himself of a companion. Victor has a family who care for him very much, but he shows very little regard to them and their feelings, however the creature is dedicated to a family who dont even realise is existence. The creature expresses an ongoing desire for companionship, whereas Victor never expresses that he is lonely, he just wallows in his own self pity. Victor has all the creature wants, whereas Victor couldnt care less, it is this ignorance of others feelings that makes Victor a much lesser man than the creature. The creature however is not perfect, once he is divorced from the De Laceys he becomes incredibly vindictive and spends the rest of the novel inflicting pain. The way in which the creature does this to Victor is by hurting Victor deeply then waiting for him to recover from the loss of another family member, then hurts him again. These murders are also pre meditated, he kills essentially in cold blood which may be a product of his upbringing but it makes him a killer. The creature says, I gazed on my victim, about William, this is evidence that the creature is a cold blooded killer. Another example of his vindictiveness is the way in which he leaves notes behind when being pursued by Victor, he taunts him when Victor is a broken man. In the novel Victor is not a killer, he never sets out to hurt others intentionally. He becomes blinded by his work, but never sets out to kill in cold blood. This highlights the point that Shelley may be stereotyping the creature as most people would as a killer, but it shows that the creature cannot be considered as a man. A most significant contrast between the two is how selfless the creature is in contrast to Victor. The creature helps the De Laceys with their work out of the goodness of his heart, as well as that he feels remorse for stealing their food and tries to make up for it by helping them. He is never greedy or self obsessed, he just wants to be accepted. Victor is incredibly selfish throughout the novel, emotionally especially. Clerval shows huge dedication to his friend throughout the novel, he cares for him when ill, but Victor never reciprocates this care. When with Justine in prison he claims, deep and bitter agony that she will never feel, to himself, he thinks he is suffering more than someone on death row. In the entire novel Victor never helps out anyone, which is why the creature is a better person than Victor. Victor is also self obsessed with his own feelings after the deaths of William, Justine, and Clerval he generally thinks about himself and his own feelings.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Successful management and team development

Successful management and team development Due to the nature of this essay it will be discussion and analyses of the following; firstly successful management process on the field work. Secondly, Team make up and team development. Thirdly, leadership effectiveness in field work and what influences making them taking responsibility. The discussion will be attached with examples of ‘2009 Outreach trip. For any successful organization need a successful management. Management is a difficult term to define. The simplest definition of management is the use of people and other resources to achieve the objectives (Boone Kurtz 4:1992). An effective teams and individuals depends on varies factors. The most important factor is the management process (Chambers, Johnston Slack 1:2010). Management process contains four functions: planning, organizing, leading and controlling (Boone Kurtz 4:1992). There are two important factors lead an organization that work in field (such a disaster organization) to success: team work, and the right management process. Strategy in management is sets the objectives and goals for the organization into a framework of time to allow people know what must be achieved, when and by whom (QuickMBA 2007). Strategic analysis process is looking on the organization externally and reflect back internally to identify weaknesses, strengths and culture to enable a strategic direction to be chosen. After identifying yourself then you can choose the organization structure and use short term tactics to achieve your goals. (QuickMBA 2007). In the field trip our main strategy is to absorb the maximum of information and experience from the exercises. We used different tactics which are get full participation in exercises and take different roles and responsibilities in each exercise. Team make up and team development is important be understood between the individuals. There are many definitions define what is team, Katzenbach and Smith (1993) stated that â€Å" A team is a small number of people with complementary skill who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable† (Sheard Kakabadse 2004:13). As in the field trip my team doesnt exceed twenty people and we all complementary skills with common goal to achieve it in exercises. Team make up is together individuals with different abilities and skills to make up a perfect group/team for achieving the objectives (Hayes 1997:45). A team should be defined in terms of purpose, power, place, people and plane (5 ps). If one of the â€Å"Ps† fail the team may be slightly more than a group of individuals whose work is related but not coordinated in any efficient manner (Holpp 4:1999). Individuals in the team pass through different stag es of development. Tuckmans model of team development (1965), his four stages model; forming, storming, norming, and performing. In (1977) the model reviewed by Tuckman and Jensen and the added the fifth stage ‘adjourning (Rickards Moger 2000:276). Referring to the Outreach trip experience that this year development stages happened quicker, and individuals settle with the team members quicker, this because the team already passed through the stages last year and every individual understand his/her role and abilities in respect of others. Furthermore, Belbin showed that successful of teams consisted mixture of different individuals. He argued that successful teams would always need involve people with different roles (Hayes 1997:47-48). See appendix 1 for Belbin team role. Different roles in the team may be crucial to the overall success. In Outreach we tried to make the team balanced in the context of person personality which every team have a range of doing/acting, thinking/problem-solving and people/feeling so the team balance up. The roles identified in one of our lectures which everyone has identified his/her role and some people have multiple roles. Moving forward, any team need a leader to guide them to the right track. Leader responsibility is to protect productivity, minimize risk and motivate the team members so they perform and realize the teams objective, furthermore, leader coordinate team effort and set direction, goals, targets and purpose for the team (Foster Wellingtom 2009:27). Claire Rubin stated the importance of leadership in emergency management. She reveals that there are several characteristics associated with good leaders in emergency management. She discussed the quicker you able to put resources to work and let people know what their task are the more effective recovery operation will be (David 2007:437). However, most of the times in disaster situation the leader need to think regather all the information so to make the right decision, the first few mints are valuable for reviewing and thinking on the situation rather than rushing to the incident knowing nothing what to do that may cause significant mistak es. Communication is a very important aspect between the leader and the team. Lumsden Wiethoff (2010) defined leadership as verbal and nonverbal communication that assist a teams transactional and task processes in achieving individuals and teams needs and goals (p.28). Mainly there are three leadership styles; authoritarian, laissez-faire leadership and democratic leadership. Each style determine to the leader and the participation level between the leader and the team. The diagram below explain the participation level in each leadership style. Leadership takes place on three levels: teams, operational and strategic. The essential kind of leadership refers to ‘Adair three circles; task, team and individual. The leader must be in awareness, understanding the three circle model (Adair 2007:65). The focus may be more in one aspect, for example, in exercises the individual learning and team development is more crucial then the task, but in a real situation as an earthquake then the task be more important than individual learning or team development. Reflecting back in the field trip individual learning and team development was more important than the task. The diagram below show the difference of exercises and earthquake. However, there are five key functions of leadership linked with Adair model which are; define objectives, plan organize, inform confirm, Support monitor and evaluate. Within this communication is crucial a factor (LMC 2008) Communication is crucial factor of team success. A successful information sharing make the objective clear and each individual in the team will have a clear view of role. Hayes said â€Å"effective communication between members does more than simply remove status barriers it lead to the team success† (41). McGregor stated that an effective group/team include; participation, leadership, trust, communication, respect, commitment to common aim, team spirit and congenial atmosphere (Heller 2006). Reflecting back to the outreach trip the team was in full participation, leadership role was understood and took effectively, there was respect between members of the team, for example when someone talk everyone listen, the communication between the team was good made the aims and objectives clear to everyone, the motivational spirit was attend in which every member want to finish the task even if we have been stopped by the supervisor. Any operation must come to a decision on the balance between using specialist, dividing the total task down into smaller parts, each which is accomplished by team or single person (Chambers, Johnston Slack 242:2010). For example in the Outreach earth quake exercise the task accomplished by dividing into teams (like the logistic team, map reading team and search and rescue team) this made the task carry out easier. The division of teams made by individual preference and knowledge, for example the map reading team include members who are most familiar with maps and maps reading. Decision-making beside to leadership and communication is one of the most import aspects of a successful manager. Decision making is a key element to reaching goals and objectives. It is about the why, who, when, where of a course of action and how to overcome difficulties and solve problems. It is important to have contingency plans to backup and avoid failure (Adair 2008:48). The effective decision has six elements: Defining the objective, gathering sufficient information, identifying the feasible options, evaluation, making the decision and testing and implementing (Adair 2008:49). Shared leadership is important in teams field work, which every individual responsibility for practicing shared leadership has increased in importance as teams assume more and more management and decision making roles (Lumsden Wiethoff 2010:35). In outreach in some parts of the exercise the leader need help so Conclusion: I have refered to the importance on the communication in any point of work. Communication in disaster management is one of the key success which the statistics says that about 90% of the disaster failures caused by lack of communication. Communication is the link between teams, individuals, leaders etc. Individuals cannot be perfect but group of people can be perfect. Reference: Boone, L.E. Kurtz, D.L. (1992) Management. New York ; London :McGraw-Hill Chambers, R., Johnston, S. Slack, N. (2010) Operation Management Edinburgh Gate: Harlow Holpp, L. (1999). Managing Teams. London :McGraw-Hill. Rickards, T. Moger, S. (2000) British Journal of Management. Creative Leadership Processes in Project Team Development: An Alternative to Tuckmans Stage Model. Vol.11, 273-283 Sheard Kakabadse (2004) A process perspective on leadership and team development. Journal of Management Development. Vol.23 pp.7-106 Foster, N. Wellingtom, P. (2009) Effective Team Leadership. Stevenage :Institution of Engineering and Technology David, A. (2007) Disaster Response and Recovery :strategies and tactics for resilience. Hoboken, NJ. :Wiley Lumsden, G. Wiethoff, C. (2010) Communicating in groups and teams :sharing leadership. Boston, Mass. :Wadsworth Cengage Learning Adair, J ed Thomas,N. (2008) The of Best John Adair on Leadership and Management. London:Thorogood Adair, J. (2007) Develop your Leadership Skills. London ; Philadelphia Hayes, N. (1997) Successful Team Management. London :International Thomson Business Press QuickMBA (2007). Strategic Management. [online] available from [25th January 2010] LMC (2008). Adairs model of Leadership Functions. [online] available from [29th January 2010] Heller (2006). Team Management: True leadership and teamwork. [online] available from [2nd February 2010]

Thursday, September 19, 2019

A Journey into the Soul in Heart of Darkness Essay -- Heart Darkness e

A Journey into the Soul in Heart of Darkness A picture is an abstract idea, brought into context to form something concrete. They are made up and created to give off some sort of feeling or mood, that one can relate too. The atmosphere helps determine what kind of mood the picture will take. Any author, of either a painting or piece of literature will set the mood by using their atmosphere to enhance the theme of their creation. In Heart of Darkness, Joseph Conrad uses mood and atmosphere to help create a portrait called, the journey into the soul. The journey to the soul is to find one's self. Atmosphere pervades the mood or spirit. The atmosphere aids in revealing the journey to find one's soul. The setting, "took in the forest, the creek, the mud, the river-seemed to beckon with a dishonoring flourish before the sunlit face of land a treacherous appeal to the lurking death, to the hidden evil, to the profound darkness of its heart." Conrad 54 Conrad does not even mention their exact location which is very peculiar. The main river was described in the form a snake. A snake can be looked at from many points of views, mythological, biblical, literal and metaphorically. The snake represents all the twists and turns and being able to find one's inner-self is very difficult and twisted. The snake represents some of the animal imagery in the novel. Perhaps this is a sign that the jungle is something living and not just an ordinary jungle. Literature's imagery helps to show the main idea th... off against the state of the reader. While reading the novel I was able to reflect on my own journey to the soul. Any reader can reflect and realize the inevitable. The journey is not a pleasant one, it is a very difficult task, where evil lurks in the smallest of places. These places could be anywhere including the soul and the soul is one of man's most unique qualities. It determines who we are and how we treat everyone surrounding our presence. In this universe people live and die but a soul is immortal and will undertake an eternity. Works Cited Conrad, Joseph.Heart of Darkness.Bantam Books:New York,1981. Resources for the Study of Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness.1998. Simon & Schuster.Webster's New World Dictionary.Macmillian:New York,1996.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Female Representation on the Board of Directors :: womens studies, business

Hillman, Shropshire and Cannella (2007) seeks to answer the question of why do some organizations have women on their board of directors while others do not? This review will seek to identify the objective of the study; basic assumptions and theories deployed; identify the hypothesis and research methodologies used in testing the assumptions, and discuss the results before reaching a conclusion. The research question is appropriate because it focused on the characteristics organisations have that are likely pointers to the level of female representation on its board. Previous research looked at female representations based on work group level (e.g Cox & Nkomo, 1991; Milliken & Martins, 1996) or on an individual level. In addition, despite the several agitations and literatures that show the accrued benefits of having more women on board( e.g Blackman, 2004; Browder, 1995; Gasparino &Boyce, 1998), recent statistics shows that men still hold a greater number of seats on boards of US firms. Schnake et al (2006:31). What could be the reason for this? What are the common attributes/characteristics of these organisations where there are women on their boards? These were referred to as organisational predictors. According to Hillman et al, focusing on organizational characteristics that are predictive of women on corporate boards allows us to systematically explore under what conditions a firm’s board is more likely to include female directors (2007:941). This represents the underlying objective of this study. In achieving this, references were made to existing theory and hypotheses were developed and tested. The resource dependence theory was used as the theoretical framework in the search to answers for these questions. It examines the interdependence between organizations and entities in their external environment. Pfeffer, Pfeffer & Salancik, cited in Hillman et al (2007:942). The Resource dependence theory is also, hinged on the fact that no organisation can succeed without the derived benefits they get from external entities. This remains a crucial factor in board recruitment and female board members can provide such benefits to their organisations. The article is based on deductive research, which entails testing of hypotheses derived from existing theories and concept (Gummesson as cited in University of Leicester 2008:187). The hypotheses tested were as follows 1. Organisational size is positively associated with female representation on a board of directors 2. Firms in industries with greater female employment bases are positively associated with female representation on boards of directors 3. A firm’s level of diversification is positively associated with female representation on its board of directors

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Reading is Important

At the same time, technology like pods and cell phones may distract potential readers from books. Caleb Grain's and Stephen Kings arguments were both professional and compelling for the readers which Grain talks about how a decline in reading might be affecting the culture by providing statistics and evidence to back up his assertion; conversely, Kings argument was more entertainment and descriptive by including the Harry Potter series into his article, and at the same time, reassuring that the kids are alright.Exemplification is the essential key that Grain used to convince his audience that a decline in reading might be affecting the culture; his several examples were given in each of his paragraphs which make his point more clearly and logical to the readers. Grain writes, â€Å"In 1970, according to Editor & Publisher International Year Book, there were 62. 1 million weekday newspapers in circulation? about 0. 3 papers per person. Since 1990, circulation has declined steadily, a nd in 2006 there were Just 52. 3 million weekday papers?about 0. 7 per person†¦ † (308). Indeed, facts and comparisons about how reading is on decline in our contemporary ultra, and how it used to be back in the day was the main point in his article, not only in this paragraph. The author relied on testimony that would make a large percentage of people realize the effect of ignorance and how books are falling down because they aren't interactive enough. In his first example, he says, â€Å"In the fourth millennium B. C. E, the Sumerians developed cuneiform and the Egyptians hieroglyphs†¦ Traders had to recognize hundreds of symbols†¦ † (311). Likewise, this paragraph gives examples of how people used to read hundreds of symbols to get informed and educated, but on the contrary, nowadays, fewer children and adults are reading. By emphasizing exemplification, Grain uses results and statistics to convince his readers to support his specific opinion. He combi nes statistics with other kinds of evidence when he states a statistic, and then he gives an example reinforcing the number.Statistics can always be powerful evidence and command the attention of the audience. Grain warned, â€Å"During the next two decades, reading continued to fall and television watching to rise, though more slowly. By 1995, adding which had occupied twenty-one per cent of people's spare time in 1995, accounted for Just nine per cent†¦ † (309). According to these statistics, reading for pleasure is continuing to decline, and people's leisure time will be eroded by television, computer games, and internet activities.Equally important, Grain also depended on results to convince and encourages his readers to take the passion and enjoy reading with using the comparisons between the non-readers and readers. Grain says, â€Å"The N. E. A reports that readers are more likely than non-readers to play sports, exercise, and visit art museums†¦ (318). Whic h would give the readers the motivation to read more efficiently. Stephen king looked critically into J. K. Railings â€Å"Ministry of Magic,† which is a fascinating book for children, who became focused on reading the Harry Porter's story.King, however, presented his view that Railings book was not perfect since most of the sections in it were too long in the narrations. On the other hand, King uses entertainment as a rhetorical strategy to explain the lifestyle of Harry Potter, which creates a sense of rich and elegant content whereby the reader gets to concentrate more. King writes, â€Å"And sometimes she falls prey to the Robinson Crusoe syndrome. In Crusoe, whenever the marooned hero requires something, he ventures out to his ship-which has conveniently run aground on the reef surrounding his desert island†¦ † (324).Entertainment as a rhetorical strategy plays a vital role in ensuring the reader is not bored. King uses creative spells like the Cruse's ship t hat brings out an astonishing level of fantasy. Entertainment sets a scenario whereby the reader opens up to think critically while analyzing and evaluating the purpose of the story. Entertainment ensures that the reader becomes vitiated by the story; hence it increases the level of concentration and interest in reading the story. Description is another crucial aspect of rhetorical strategy used to create vivid images in the minds of readers.King has used subjective description to keep the readers intense, since he emphasizes on the reader's feelings. The author writes, â€Å"One day in my hometown of Bangor, I was walking up the street and observed a dirty-face boy of about 3 with scabbed knees and a look of extreme concentration on his face†¦ † (322). He uses words that give a description, which illustrates a picture in the reader's view. Also, King describes how Harry and his friends get into a tight corner and create a new spell, turning into a slide, thus making a c hild react gleefully.He used this strategy to capture the attention of his readers. Critically speaking, King did not succeed in compelling and convincing other people that Railings book was long. King himself comes to acknowledge that Roiling is a talented author that had an amusing story to tell and conveys her ideas without talking down. Further on, King compliments Roiling for setting standards which today's writers cannot achieve as easily as she can. Society's seeming disinterest in books and literature projects negative impacts on not only education and literacy, but on the general future as well.Inspiring people to read stories and articles about movies will increase literacy and would re-establish reading for pleasure in society once again and would lead the path to reading being the main medium for information and knowledge. In addition, non-readers lack the analytical and comprehensive skills of fluent readers, whereas the latter will most probably have built themselves a stronger vocabulary, impressive communication skills, and a rater knowledge of literature and composition.Reading is an integral part of culture, and human literacy is what primarily set us apart. It is crucial that it be re- introduced so that generations to come will be able to benefit from reading. In fact, school is the primary source of education that comes after parents' duty. Nowadays, many parents ignore and neglect their children in many different aspects, focusing on their Jobs and businesses, and they forget about their children, whom they depend on schools to teach them everything, starting with education and ending with social life.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Poetry †Pablo Neruda Essay

1. The speaker in this poem is the persona, because first person is used (â€Å"I†). 2. The character of the speaker changes from the beginning of the poem to the end. At the beginning the character is unsure in his words and actions, can’t find an answer to his questions: â€Å"I don’t know, I don’t know where it came from, from winter or a river. I don’t know how or when†, â€Å"I did not know what to say†. The character has also lost his identity: â€Å"there I was without a face†, â€Å"my eyes were blind†. By the end of the poem, the speaker ‘finds himself’ as part of something, part of the â€Å"void†, â€Å"mystery†, â€Å"part of the abyss†. He finds himself going with the flow, wheeling â€Å"with the stars†, â€Å"my heart broke loose on the wind†. 3. a) The kind of images used most often after the line, â€Å"and suddenly I saw† in stanza two are connected with the nature and its flow: â€Å"palpitating plantations†, â€Å"shadow perforated†. They are also connected with how the world opens for the speaker: â€Å"the heavens unfastened and open†. b) This imagery contributes to our understanding of the speaker’s thoughts and feelings when he first encounters poetry, because the reference to nature helps the reader to understand the idea of the poem. Nature is something everybody understands regardless of nation or education. 4. The speaker’s first lines of poetry could be â€Å"pure nonsense, / pure wisdom†. They could be nonsense because he is not guided by his thoughts, but the poetry simply flows in him and he writes it. The lines can be wisdom as well because of the way the poet receives his ideas and puts them into words.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Operation Essay

Southern Fire-fighters, New Zealand Railways, Speights Brewery, Otago Hospital Board, and Cadburys. They limited membership to employees and their families in each case. In 1986, due to growth, the (renamed) Fletcher Challenge Employees (Otago) and the Southern Fire-fighters Credit Unions co-operated in the sharing of office facilities. They purchased a site on a main thoroughfare in Dunedin, just down from the central business district, and erected a modern single story office with street frontage, and provided service to members on a full time basis. Methods for financial transactions varied from manual to different types of computer operated systems. The mid to late 1980s saw great change in the New Zealand economy and society, with the introduction of (new right) `Rogernomics’ policies. The Labour Government deregulated the financial services sector, resulting in the entrance and proliferation of foreign owned banks, and other types of financial service providers, and conversion of building societies to banks, many of them seeking a share of the basic business of credit union, viz personal loans, with a consequential significant increase in competition. However, the banks introduction of sophisticated technological services, in the shape of ATM, and Eftpos, made rural banking relatively expensive, resulting in branch closures. In addition the then Labour Government sold the old Postbank to the ANZ bank. Unemployment increased significantly in the country, and compounded the rural problem, as organisations downsized in a massive way, particularly in the public sector. Questions for Discussion 1. Suggest a possible strategy(s) for the survival of the credit unions in Otago. Phase Two: (1987-95) Otago, in order to take advantage of economies of scale, and thus compete more favourably in the market place. The industrial credit unions had flourished over the period, but the directors realised that their individual sites once saturated, provided little potential for membership growth, particularly in the face of major downsizing. At this point the Railways and Speights credit unions had merged with Fletcher Challenge Employees Each credit union received sufficient support from their respective memberships for amalgamation. The regulator for the credit union industry, the Registrar for Friendly Societies and Credit Unions (Registrar), approved the merger, such that the newly named Credit Union Otago (CUO) opened for business in November 1987 at its Dunedin premises, and functioned with four full time professional staff working a fiveday week. Becoming a community based credit union meant opening up membership to anyone resident in Otago, which has a population of about one hundred and forty thousand. As the first region in New Zealand to undergo this process, Otago provided the model for others to follow.

End of Life & Dementia Care Essay

1.1 Dementia is a progressive disease where an individual’s brain functions deteriorate and affects their mental capabilities. This disease is incurable which is similar to another terminal illness such as cancer. Symptoms of dementia will affect an individual’s memory leading to loss and confusing, language/ communication, understanding and judgement. Medication can be prescribed to help slow down the progression of symptoms. Within the more advanced stages the individual will commonly suffer from incontinence, limited mobility and limited communication usually the individual will not be able to use sentences just limited words. Other symptoms that worsen similar to those with a terminal illness are: aspiration, difficulty with breathing, pressure sores from lack of mobility, unrecognisable symptoms of pain (may not be able to communicate) this could lead to the individual not being treated for pain. 1.2 The end of life experience may differentiate between those who have to dementia to those who individuals without. An individual may lack understanding surrounding the diagnosis being made, they may have had symptoms for a longer period of time before a diagnosis had been made. This can lead to confusion as to why they are having symptoms and the way they are feeling. An individual’s communication may be limited, so they may not be able to express their feelings, changes in symptoms and pain. This can lead to depression/ anxiety which impacts on the individual’s behaviour I.e. verbally aggressive, changes in appetite. Lack of communication regarding pain could impact on the quality of care and medical treatment, as care givers are the primary source of recognising an individual’s pain through sounds rather than speech and non verbal communication. Whereas someone who doesn’t have dementia may be able understand a diagnosis and engage fully on how this c an affect their health through an illness progressing. 1.3 Person centred care has come under Health and social care act which states â€Å"that people should make choices about their lives and they should be at the centre of all planning†. Is it important having the person at the centre of all care throughout the time of caring for someone and when end of  life is approaching. The care provided to an individual within this should be based around their choices, beliefs, values and decisions which may have been made in advance. Working as a carer these should be respected. For example knowing the individual’s likes/ dislikes surrounding food, drinks, clothing, to have permission to give medication when the individual is unable to verbally consent. 1.4 In the earlier stages of dementia it is important that the carer works alongside and includes the individual and their family to make plans to reflect the individual’s wishes to be cared for at the end of life, before the dementia progresses and leaves the individual unable to communicate their wishes. Otherwise an appointed person would need to make decisions for the individual which could leave them feel distressed and unhappy. Planning and assessing allows time to plan for the care over the few days of life including after death. These advanced care plans reflect the individual’s values, beliefs and choices I.e. lifestyle, finances, medication, DNAR’s, funeral plans, after death care, appointed person for as/when the individual lacks capacity under the Mental health act to make â€Å"best interest† decisions on their behalf. 2.1 Pain in individuals with dementia is poorly recognised and undertreated can be due to lack of communication. This is dependent on what stage the individual is at within their dementia and how well the care givers know the individual. Some people maybe able to verbally communicate to carers if they are in pain by using single words and using non verbal methods I.e. pointing to what hurts but as this diseases progresses the individual’s ability to express themselves will worsen. If pain is going unrecognised, then there would be no medical intervention, which could cause more pain and will impact on the individual’s health and behaviours. 2.2 In the earlier stages individual’s may be able to express pain through verbal and non verbal communication, together the carer could recognise that they are in pain and a rough area of where this is coming from. This will enable carers to be able to provide medical intervention if needed I.e. Administering PRN paracetamol or seeking medical attention from a nurse/doctor when required. Care givers should use clear questions when speaking to someone with dementia as it may take them a little longer to process what is being asked. As the dementia progresses the individual could be unable to communicate, but they may be able to express pain through noise I.e. screams, but these could be easily misinterpreted by care providers as a â€Å"normal† behaviour if these are regular occurrences. 2.3 When pain has been recognised by care providers, communication with the individual is important where possible dependant of their ability to be verbal and how much capacity the individual has to understand their pain. Care givers will continuously monitor and observe the individual for changes in needs and record these within the daily care notes within the care plan. Dependant on the type of pain will depend on what medical intervention will be best for the individual through advice from other health professionals. Health professionals offer support to care providers to work as a multi-disciplinary team to promote the well-being of the individual to observe, monitor symptoms as well as the care staff. Care staff can give over the counter medications as per care plan, or the doctor/ nurses can prescribe stronger pain relief and controlled drugs. As end of life gets nearer palliative nurse would be visiting to monitor the individual and advise staff on how best to care for the individual and what symptoms to look for in the last few days of life I.e. changes in skin colour, increase of secretions. Medications maybe increased I.e. syringe drivers, which will help ease the pain and to make the individual more comfortable. Advice from colleagues and other health professionals will support care givers about non medicated techniques, these can be how best to position the individual, how often they should be repositioned to prevent pressure sores, skin care – keep the skin clear of sores, trying to keep the mouth clean as there would be increased secretions from the mouth, advice on fluid intake, methods how to try and encourage fluid intake i.e. spooning drinks, changes in food I.e soft. The individual should have an advanced care plan which care givers would be using to meet the individuals needs and wishes for example if they have a DNAR in place, then CPR would not be given. 3.1 Carers may feel guilt and stress and the end of life of an individual with dementia because they may have felt negative emotions towards the individual throughout the stages of dementia. At diagnosis the carer may not have accepted the diagnosis and treated the individual normally which could have caused frustration between the individual/ carer or they could have been in denial of the diagnosis and treated the individual â€Å"normally†, so the needs of the individual may not have been met fully. This could of impacted on the behaviour of the individual to become agitated or withdrawn if they feel they are a burden. The carer may not fully understand the symptoms of dementia especially challenging behaviour I.e. shouting out/ aggression. The carer may have felt negative emotions such as embarrassment and may have lost their temper or felt like hurting the individual and they are frustrated with the constant needs of support the individual has. When dementia has progressed and the carer may have been stressed from taking on the responsibility of caring if they have not had regular breaks. But on the other hand the carer may feel guilty for taking breaks and leaving them for other services to look after them. The carer may have had to make difficult decisions regarding accommodation for the individual such as going into residential care as they feel they can no longer cope with the responsibility of looking after them. After death the carer may feel they have let the individual down and not cared for them well enough based on their own expectations of themselves, they may also regret certain decis ions I.e. residential care. 3.2 Carers can be supported by other professionals to understand how the end of life process may differ for individuals with dementia. Any health professional involved with the individual’s care can provide support and advice I.e. GP’s, nurses, palliative nurses and social workers. They can also suggest informative services offered to carers as support where they can go and discuss the process with trained professionals and other carers. Communication between family, carers, health professionals is vital with end of life care as this can provide reassurance that the individual is being cared for is comfortable as possible, also to keep informed of any changes in the individual’s health I.e. refusal/ lack of ability to drink. A family  member may have been chosen to be the individual’s power of attorney in the advanced care plan once capacity has been lost. This would have been documented under the Mental Health Act. This chosen person would need to be involved in decisions alongside doctors. All the people involved with the care of the individual will support each other, answer any questions, and work alongside any advanced plans which should have been put in place. As towards end of life the individual won’t be able to make their own decisions so someone else will have to do this in the best interest of the individual. 3.3 Anyone supporting an individual with dementia will feel loss and grief at the end of his or her life. Some people may experience loss and grief at the time of diagnosis or once the dementia has progressed further as there will be a lack of recognition between family and the individual as they may feel the dementia has taken over. People may feel all different kinds of emotions through loss and grief. Some may have accepted the diagnosis/ changes of the individual and feel sadness. Others may find this a relief that the individual has passed and no longer having to carry on with progressing symptoms causing them pain and a poor quality of life. 3.4 Carers can have support from health professionals to make decisions and some of these decisions have to be made with health professionals, for example for a Do Not Attempt Resuscitation decision has to be made by a GP has to sign this document off in order to meet their best interests. Other decisions may need to be made if an advanced plan hasn’t been made such as where the individual will reside at home or within a residential placement. 3.5 At the final stages of end of life it is important to have good communication between all relevant parties (carers, family and colleagues). This is important so relatives are kept informed about how the individual’s health is, any changes in medications as towards end of life as it is common to be prescribed a higher dosage of pain relief I.e. morphine syringe drivers, as changes as in the final stages changes can happen quickly. Relatives may also want to know about the individual’s health as they may want to visit to say their last words or even be present at the time of death. Good communication is also important between carers as in  residential placements there will be staff change overs which they will need to know the individuals health state, information about medication, to read end of life care plans, if anyone relatives need calling, any other info I.e. visits from nurses/ GP’s.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Impact of Organised Retail Chains on Unorganised Retail Sector

â€Å"A COMPARITIVE STUDY ON PREFERENCE OF SOFT DRINKS IN YOUTH REPORT Submitted to: Submitted by: DR. RAJKUMARCHIRAG GUPTA Roll no. 5382 MBA 5. 4 MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [pic] INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES AND RESEARCH MDU,ROHTAK 2010-2011 DECLARATION I Chirag Gupta, student of 5 year M. B. A 4th semester of Institute of Management Studies and Research hereby declare that the project report titled â€Å"Preference of soft drink in youth† is a code of critical & independent work carried out by me under supervision & guidance of Dr.Raj Kumar. This has not been previously submitted for the award of any other diploma, degree or other similar degree. The feasibility suggestion has been duly incorporated in the consultation with the supervisor. Signature of the Candidate EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Soft Drinks were common preference among all the individuals, irrespective of their age groups as it had great brand value and great advertisement.Market Research is based on some und erlying parameters like: †¢ Changing consumption pattern †¢ Advertisements †¢ Taste †¢ Status consciousness †¢ Varying lifestyle The study starts with determining the major players in the soft drinks, their overall consumption pattern among the people and ends up with the conclusion as per the state of mind of the average rational human being.Consumer preferences are changing towards healthier food, and thus such a trend will carry on for some time to come. In the soft drinks market of late, most recent new products launched have been focused on the health benefits of the soft drinks, like pomegranate juices, calcium-fortified bottled water and a series of reduced-sugar alternatives, with such features not previously so readily available to or heavily promoted at the target audience.TABLE OF CONTENTS SERIAL NO. TITLE PAGE NO. 1) INTRODUCTION 1) Industrial profile 01 2) Major players in soft drinks segment 04 3) Study of growth of soft drink market 09 2) RE SEARCH METHODOLOGY ) Purpose of the study 10 2) Objectives of the study 10 3) Scope of the study 10 4) Research Design 11 5) Sampling Technique used 12 6) Selection of Sample Size 12 7) Sources of Data collection 12 8) Statistical Tools Used 12 3) DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS 13 ) LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 24 5) CONCLUSION 25 6) ANNEXURE 6. 1) Questionnaire 26 7) BIBLIOGRAPHY 28 INTRODUCTION INDUSTRIAL PROFILE The soft-drink industry comprises companies that manufacture nonalcoholic beverages and carbonated mineral waters or concentrates and syrups for the manufacture of carbonated beverages.Naturally occurring bubbling or sparkling mineral waters have been popular for thousands of years: the ancient Greeks believed that such waters had medicinal properties and bathed in them regularly; the Romans established resorts around mineral springs throughout Europe. In the 1500s the village of Spa in Belgium became famous for its waters, which by the early 1600s were sold, in bottles, as far away as London, Eng. Development of the first man-made sparkling or carbonated water is credited to Joseph Priestley, the British scientist who discovered oxygen.In 1772 he invented a method of â€Å"pushing† carbon dioxide into water by dissolving it under pressure, thus creating fairly long-lasting bubbles. The technique led to development of the soft-drink industry. By the beginning of the 19th century, carbonated water was being made commercially in France and North America; shortly thereafter, flavours (normally fruit concentrates) were added to enliven the taste. In the 1820s, small carbonated bottling operations were established in Canada, producing carbonated drinks in refillable bottles which were merchandised as medicinal elixirs or tonics.Most soft drinks are still carbonated to give drinks a â€Å"tangy bite† and to stimulate the tongue. Furthermore, because scent is an important part of taste, the flavours carried as vapours in the bubbles enhance taste. T he principle of â€Å"pushing† carbon dioxide is still used, but now the water is first purified in a process known as â€Å"polishing. † Cooled carbon dioxide is then injected at pressures of 275-550 kilopascals. Some of the early drinks bottled in Canada were called Birch Beer, Ginger Beer, Sarsaparilla, Sour Lemon, None-Such Soda Water and Cream Soda.The first carbonated beverage or â€Å"pop† bottles were sealed with corks held tightly in place with a wire binding. Because they had to be stored neck down so that the cork would not dry and allow the carbonation to leak away, they were manufactured with rounded bottoms. By the mid-1800s, soft drinks sold in Canada were packaged in 8-ounce (227. 2 ml) round-bottom bottles for about 25 cents a dozen, except ginger beer, which was sold in draught form from wooden kegs. Wired cork closures were used until about 1884 with Codd's Patented Globe Stoppers (25 types in all). Such closures were replaced by the Hutcheson Spring Stopper.The crown cap was introduced around 1905 and improved versions are still widely used, although they are gradually being replaced, especially on larger containers, with reclosable screw caps. Other packaging innovations since the mid-1960s include canned carbonated beverages, nonreturnable glass bottles and containers made from rigid plastics. However, an effort is being made, often through provincial legislation, to increase the use of returnable glass containers. In the industry's early years the number of carbonated-beverage plants increased steadily, most serving small regional markets.In 1929 the industry was made up of 345 production plants and the value of shipments reached $12. 3 million. By 1960 the number of plants had increased to 502 and the value of sales to $172. 7 million. Subsequently, consolidation began, prompted by improved production, packaging and distribution facilities. By 1973, 337 plants were in production and the value of shipments was $484 m illion. In 1985, with sales of about $1. 8 billion, the industry had 187 plants in production: Newfoundland had 3; PEI, 1; Nova Scotia, 7; New Brunswick, 8; Quebec, 66; Ontario, 58; Manitoba, 7; Saskatchewan, 10; Alberta, 13; and BC, 14.Production volume has also increased dramatically: in 1939, soft-drink bottlers produced about 162 million litres of carbonated beverages; by 1967, production passed 758 million litres; in 1986, shipments were estimated at over 2. 1 billion litres; and in 1998 that figure rose to 3. 5 billion litres. The industry is regulated by both federal and provincial agencies, 3 of the most important being CONSUMER AND CORPORATE AFFAIRS (responsible for the Consumer Packaging and Labelling Act), HEALTH CANADA (which administers the Food and Drugs Act) and Environment Canada (which focuses on environmental matters).The industry is represented by the Canadian Soft Drink Association in Toronto and by several provincial associations. The introduction of diet carbon ated beverages has changed the industry's profile. Several years ago, in response to increasing consumer diet consciousness, the industry introduced the first successful sugar-free diet drinks using the artificial sweetener cyclamate. But questions were raised about the safety of this additive and, based on existing scientific data, Health Canada banned its use in Canadian commercial FOODS AND BEVERAGES.This decision, estimated to have cost the industry more than $15 million, was a setback to diet-drink development. The industry turned to saccharin, but this too was eventually banned. Now, a new sugar-free additive, aspartame, has been approved for use in diet soft drinks, and the cyclamate/saccharin situation is not expected to recur because aspartame consists of amino acids, which occur naturally. Aspartame-sweetened diet drinks have had a dramatic effect on the Canadian carbonated-beverage industry.Just before the saccharin ban in 1977, diet drinks accounted for about 10% of the soft-drink market; following the ban the diet share dropped to about 2%, consisting of beverages partially sweetened with small amounts of sugar. In 1982, the first full year that aspartame was used in Canada, diet drinks increased by 15. 2% of total soft-drink sales, while the total soft-drink industry grew 8%. In 1987 total soft-drink sales increased 5. 3% over 1986, while diet soft-drink sales increased by 10. 7%. This single development has encouraged strong growth in the industry.MAJOR PLAYERS IN SOFT DRINKS SEGMENT COCA COLA [pic] â€Å"thanda matlab coca cola!!! † Coca cola has truly remarkable heritage. From a humble beginning in 1886 it has now become the flagship brand of largest manufacturer, distributor of non alcoholic beverages in the world. In India, coca cola was the leading soft drink till 1977 when govt. policies necessitated its departure. Coca cola has made its return to the country in 1993. and made significant investment to ensure that the beverage is av ailable to more and more people in remote as well as inaccessible parts of the world.Coca cola returned to India in 1993 and over the past ten years has captured the imagination of the nation, building strong association with cricket, the thriving cinema industry, music etc. coca cola has been very strongly associated with cricket, sponsoring the world cup in 1996. In 2002, coca cola launched the campaign,†Thanda Matlab coca cola†. in 2003,coke was available for just rs,5 crores in the country. FANTA GHOONTH BHAR SHARARAT KAR LEY!!! [pic] Fanta entered the Indian market in year 1996 under the coca cola brand . ver the years, Fanta has occupied a strong market place and is identified as â€Å"the fun catalyst†. Fanta stands for its vibrant color, tempting taste and tingling bubbles that not just uplifts feelings but also helps free spirit thus encouraging one to indulge in the moment. LIMCA â€Å" LIME AND LEMONI!!! [pic] Drink that can cast a tangy refreshing spe ll on anyone, anywhere. Born in 1971, Limca has been the original thirst choice, of millions of consumers for over three decades. The brand has been displaying healthy volume growing year on year and limca continues to be leading flavoring soft drinks in the country.Dive into the zingy refreshment of limca and walk away a new person. THUMS UP TASTE THE THUNDER!!! [pic] Strong cola taste, exciting personality. Thums up is a leading carbonated soft drink and most trusted brand in India. Originally introduced in 1977, thums up was acquired by the coca cola company in 1993. Thums up, is, known for strong, fizzy taste and its confident, mature and uniquely masculine attitude. This brand clearly seeks to separate the man from the boys. SPRITE â€Å"SPIRITE BHUJAYE PYAAS BAKI SAB BAKWAAS!!! [pic] World wide sprite ranked as no. soft drink and is sold in more than 190 countries In India, sprite was launched in year 1999 and today it has grown to be one of the fastest growing soft drinks, l eading clear lime category. Today sprite is perceived as a youth icon. With strong appeal to youth sprite has stood for a straight forward and honest attitude. Its clear crisp hingtaste encourages today’s youth to trust their instincts, influence them to be true who they are and to obey their thirst. MAAZA YAARI DOSTI TAAZA MAAZA!!! [pic] Maaza was launched in 1976. In 1993, maaza was acquired by coca cola India. Maaza currently dominates the fruit drink category.Over the years, maaza has become synonymous with mango. â€Å"Taaza Mango, Maaza mango, Botal mei aam, maaza hai naam†. consumers regard maaza as wholesome, natural, fun loving drink real experience of fruit. The campaign builds on the existing equity of the brand and delivers a relevant emotional benefit to the moms rightly captured in tagline, â€Å"yaari dosti, and taaza maaza†. PEPSI YEH DIL MAANGE MORE!!! [pic] Pepsi cola is a carbonated beverage that is produced and manufactured by Pepsi co. It is sold in stores, restaurants and from vending machines. The drink was first made in the 1890’s in North Carolina.The brand was trademarked on June 16, 1903. There have been many Pepsi variants produced over the years. †¢ Diet Pepsi †¢ Crystal Pepsi †¢ Pepsi twist †¢ Pepsi max †¢ Pepsi samba †¢ Pepsi blue †¢ Pepsi gold †¢ Pepsi holiday spice †¢ Pepsi jazz †¢ Pepsi x(available in Finland & brazil) †¢ Pepsi next(available in Japan & south Korea) STUDY OF GROWTH OF SOFT DRINK MARKET SOFT DRINKS Carbonated drinks are dominated by artificial flavors based on cola, orange and lime with Pepsi and coca-cola dominating the market. The entire part of the drink is based on its artificial flavors and sweetening agents as no natural juice is used.MARKET †¢ Cola products account for nearly 61-62% of the total soft drinks market. †¢ Two global majors’ Pepsi and coke dominate the soft drink market. †¢ NCAER survey sa ys 91% of soft drink in the country is in the lower, lower middle and upper middle class people. †¢ The market is worth around Rs. 5000 crores with growth rate of around 10-15%. †¢ The annual per capita consumption in India is only about 6 bottles vis- a- Vis 340 bottles in the U. S. †¢ The production as soft drinks has increased from 5670 million bottles in 1998-99 to 6230 million bottles in 1999-2000 industry source. Growth market this year is expected to be 10-15% in value terms and 20-22% in volume terms. However, the market for carbonated drinks is stagnating and not growing as expected. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The main aim of this research study is to analyze the preference of youth on consumption patterns and preference of Soft Drinks. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY †¢ To study the preferences of the youth for soft drinks. †¢ To find out the factor(s) that influences the consumer’s consumption of soft drinks. †¢ To test the know- how of the consumers regarding the various existing brands of soft drinks. To know the size of the soft drink purchase for personal and household purpose. †¢ To know the frequency of consumption of soft drink. SCOPE OF THE STUDY †¢ This study is confined MDU campus Rohtak. †¢ Seasonal drinks are not considered in the study. †¢ We are considering only canned and bottled drinks. †¢ We are not considering health & alcoholic drinks. RESEARCH DESIGN A research design is a framework or blueprint for conducting the marketing research project. It specifies the details of the procedures necessary for obtaining the information needed to structure and/or solve marketing research problem.On the basis of fundamental objectives of the research we can classify research design into two general types: 1) EXPLORATORY RESEARCH 2) CONCLUSIVE RESEARCH Exploratory research is one type of research design, which has its primary objective the provision of insights into, and comprehe nsion of, the problem situation confronting the researcher. Conclusive research is designed to assist the decision maker in determining evaluating and selecting the best course of action to take in a given situation. Conclusive research can be further divided into two types:- †¢ Descriptive †¢ ExperimentalThe research design used in this project is a DESCRIPTIVE DESIGN. Descriptive study as the name implies is designed to describe something-for example the characteristics of users of a given product, the degree to which the product use varies with income, age, etc. SAMPLING TECHNIQUE USED: This research has used convenience sampling technique. 1) Convenience sampling technique: Convenience sampling is used in exploratory research where the researcher is interested in getting an inexpensive approximation of the truth. As the name implies, the sample is selected because they are convenient.SELECTION OF SAMPLE SIZE: For the study, a sample size of 60 has been taken into consi deration. SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION: Research will be based on two sources: 1. Primary data 2. Secondary data 1) PRIMARY DATA: Questionnaire: Primary data was collected by preparing questionnaire and the people were randomly being requested to fill them. 2) SECONDARY DATA: Secondary data will consist of different literatures like books which are published, articles, internet and websites. In order to reach relevant conclusion, research work needed to be designed in a proper way.STATISTICAL TOOLS USED The main statistical tools used for the collection and analyses of data in this project are: †¢ Questionnaire †¢ Bar Diagrams DATA ANALYSIS & FINDINGS |Statistics | | | |Statistics | | | | | | | | | | |Statistics | | | |Who decide the |Do you read | | | |selection of soft |instruction written | | | |drink for household? on the packaging of | | | | |soft drink? | |N |Valid |60 |60 | | |Missing |0 |0 | | |Mean |2. 8167 |1. 6167 | | |Median |3. 0000 |2. 0000 | | |Mode |3. 0 0 |2. 0 | | |Variance |. 356 |. 240 | | | | | |Do you like soft drink? | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | [pic] LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY LIMITATION OF THE STUDY ? The study was confined to University Campus MDU Rohtak only. ? Chances of some biasness could not be eliminated. ? Youth are assumed to be between the age 15 to 25 ? Time was the major constrain. Only limited sample size (60) was possible for such a vast research on such a period of time . i. e. one month ? Interaction with the respondents was also limited due to their busy work. Due to the changing life style and preferences, it was not necessary that they will consume same soft drink every time. ? There was a chance that respondent will make assumptions while filling the questionnaire. CONCLUSION CONCLUSION Following are the concluding points taken into consideration after the conduct of the research study: ? An important finding that emerged out of the survey was that 91%of youth like to have soft dri nks while 9% not like. ? Through the research it was conveyed that weekly consumption of soft drinks is more than daily consumption. ? Most of the respondents took soft drink without any reason. ? Remaining majority of the respondents consume soft drinks at the time of parties & celebrations. Most of the respondents consume soft drinks because of its taste. ? Most of the respondents were of the neutral view that advertisements affect their purchases. ? Most of the respondent likes Dew. ? Most of them consume 300ml pack for personal usage. ? Packaging doesn’t influence the purchase of most of the respondents. ? Most of them don’t read instruction written on the package of soft drink. ANNEXURE QUESTIONNAIRE Respected Sir/Madam A Research Project is being pursued in IMSAR on â€Å"Preference of soft drink in youth†. Kindly extend your cooperation & enable us doing the project successfully. This information is used for academic purpose. PERSONAL DETAILS Name  œ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.Age – †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Gender – ? Male ? Female Qualification – ? Graduate ? Under Graduate ? Post Graduate ? Other (Specify) 1) Do you like soft drinks? Yes No 2) Where do you mostly consume soft drink? PartyCafeHome 3) Frequency of consumption of soft drink in a week? Daily 2-4times more than 4 times once in a week 4) On what occasions, do you often consume the Soft Drinks? Feeling Thirsty Without any reason (just like that) ? Parties / Celebrations ? Others, please specify†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 5) What induces you to buy Soft Drinks?Price with quantity Health Drink Status symbol Taste Variety Advertisement 6) Which soft drink do you like more? Dew Sprite Cocacola Pepsi Limca Maaza Other (specify)†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 7) Do advertisements influence your purchases? Strongly Agree ? Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree ? 8) Do you agree that packaging influence consumer purchase decision? Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree ) Please tick the size of soft drink you purchase for personal consumption? 200 ml 250ml 300ml500ml other (specify)†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 10) Which soft drink is served to the guest in your home? Dew Sprite CocacolaPepsi LimcaMaazaOther (specify)†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 11) Who decide the selection of soft drink for household? FatherMother Himself/Herself Other(Specify)†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 12) Do you read instruction written on the packaging of soft drink? YesNo BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY †¢ http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Beverage †¢ www. foodindustryindia. com †¢ http://fnbnews. com/article/detarchive. asp? articleid=25105=3 †¢ http://fnbnews. com/article/detarchive. asp? rticle id=24983=3 †¢ http://fnbnews. com/article/detarchive. asp? articleid=24965=3 †¢ http://fnbnews. com/article/detarchive. asp? articleid=24849=3 †¢ http://fnbnews. com/article/detarchive. asp? articleid=25039=3 †¢ http://www. foodindustryindia. com/newfood/detailnews. jsp? n=Xtazy,%20another%20energy%20drink%20for%20the%20Indian%20market=598 †¢ http://fnbnews. com/redfr. asp? fn=/other/aboutus. asp=About%20Us#Food †¢ www. google. com †¢ Kothari C R, â€Å"Research and Methodology- Methods & Techniques†, New Age International (P) Ltd. , 2004 [pic] ———————– 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9[pic][pic] 24 27 25 12